Advertisement

Cluster Computing

, Volume 1, Issue 2, pp 197–212 | Cite as

Collision avoidance and resolution multiple access (CARMA)

  • Rodrigo Garcés
  • J.J. Garcia–Luna–Aceves
Article

Abstract

The collision avoidance and resolution multiple access (CARMA) protocol is presented and analyzed. CARMA uses a collision avoidance handshake in which the sender and receiver exchange a request to send (RTS) and a clear to send (CTS) before the sender transmits any data. CARMA is based on carrier sensing, together with collision resolution based on a deterministic tree-splitting algorithm. For analytical purposes, an upper bound is derived for the average number of steps required to resolve collisions of RTSs using the tree-splitting algorithm. This bound is then applied to the computation of the average channel utilization in a fully connected network with a large number of stations. Under light-load conditions, CARMA achieves the same average throughput as multiple access protocols based on RTS/CTS exchange and carrier sensing. It is also shown that, as the arrival rate of RTSs increases, the throughput achieved by CARMA is close to the maximum throughput that any protocol based on collision avoidance (i.e., RTS/CTS exchange) can achieve if the control packets used to acquire the floor are much smaller than the data packet trains sent by the stations. Simulation results validate the simplifying approximations made in the analytical model. Our analysis results indicate that collision resolution makes floor acquisition multiple access much more effective.

Keywords

Data Packet Medium Access Control Protocol Control Packet Collision Resolution Left Subtree 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    N. Amitay, Resource auction multiple access (RAMA): Efficient method for fast resource assignment in decentralized wireless PCS, Electronic Letters 28(8) (1992) 799-801.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    D. Bertsekas and R. Gallager, Data Networks, 2nd ed. (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1992).zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    V. Bharghavan, A. Demers, S. Shenker and L. Zhang, MACAW: a media access protocol for wireless LANs, in: Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM' 94(1994) pp. 212-225.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    J.I. Capetanakis, Tree algorithm for packet broadcasting channel, IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory 25 (1979) 505-515.zbMATHMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    C. Fullmer and J.J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves, Floor acquisition multiple access for packet-radio networks, in: Proc. ACM SIGCOMM' 95, Cambridge, MA (August 30-September 1, 1995).Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    C.L. Fullmer and J.J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves, Solutions to hidden terminal problems in wireless networks, in: Proc. ACM SIGCOMM' 97, Cannes, France (September 14-18, 1997).Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    R. Garcés and J.J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves, Floor acquisition multiple access with collision resolution, in: Proc. ACM/IEEE Mobile Computing and Networking' 96, Rye, NY (November 10-12, 1996).Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    P. Karn, MACA - a new channel access method for packet radio, in: ARRL/CRRL Amateur Radio 9th Computer Networking Conference(1990) pp. 134-140.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    M.J. Karol and I. Chih-Lin, A protocol for fast resource assignment in wireless PCS, IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technol. 43(3) (1994) 727-732.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    M.J. Karol, L. Zhao and K.Y. Eng, Distributed-queuing request update multiple access (DQRUMA) for wireless packet (ATM) networks, in: Proc. IEEE ICC' 95, Seattle, WA (June 18-21, 1995).Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    L. Kleinrock and F.A. Tobagi, Packet switching in radio channels: Part I - carrier sense multiple-access modes and their throughput-delay characteristics, IEEE Trans. Commun. 23(12) (1975) 1400-416.zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    W.F. Lo and H.T. Mouftah, Carrier sense multiple access with collision detection for radio channels, in: IEEE 13th International Communications and Energy Conference(1984) pp. 244-247.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    G.S. Sidhu, R.F. Andrews and A.B. Oppenheimer, Inside AppleTalk, 2nd ed. (Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1990).Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    F.A. Tobagi and L. Kleinrock, Packet switching in radio channels: Part II - the hidden terminal problem in carrier sense multiple-access modes and the busy-tone solution, IEEE Trans. Commun. 23(12) (1975) 1417-1433.zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    W. Xu and G. Campbell, A distributed queuing random access protocol for a broadcast channel, in: Proc. ACM SIGCOMM' 93, San Francisco, CA (13-17 September, 1993).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rodrigo Garcés
    • 1
  • J.J. Garcia–Luna–Aceves
    • 1
  1. 1.Computer Engineering Department, School of EngineeringUniversity of CaliforniaSanta CruzUSA

Personalised recommendations