Catalysis Letters

, Volume 58, Issue 2–3, pp 81–87 | Cite as

On the acidity of liquid and solid acid catalysts. Part 2. A thermodynamic and kinetic study for acid-catalysed nitrations

  • Nunziata Clara Marziano
  • Claudio Tortato
  • Lucio Ronchin
  • Federica Martini
  • Claudia Bianchi
Article

Abstract

Solid acids prepared by adding sulfuric acid on silica gel have been used as catalysts in the nitration of nitrobenzenes and their properties have been tested by kinetic studies at 25°C. Nitration rates in concentrated aqueous solutions of sulfuric acid were also analysed and the catalytic efficiencies of sulfuric acid in liquid and solid phase were compared by using kinetic data of analogous compounds. The results show that the solid acid samples exhibit nitrating properties very similar to those observed in concentrated aqueous solutions of sulfuric acid (range of 90 wt%). The relationship between nitration rates and effective concentration of electrophilic species [NO2+], determined by studying the protonation–dehydration equilibrium of nitric acid in strong acids (HNO3 + H+ ⇌ H2O + NO2+), was tested to better understand the acidity properties of medium.

nitration sulfuric acid solid acid catalysts 

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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nunziata Clara Marziano
    • 1
  • Claudio Tortato
    • 1
  • Lucio Ronchin
    • 1
  • Federica Martini
    • 1
  • Claudia Bianchi
    • 2
  1. 1.INFM and Chemistry DepartmentUniversity of VeniceVeniceItaly
  2. 2.Department of Physical Chemistry and ElectrochemistryUniversity of MilanMilanItaly

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