Cluster Computing

, Volume 1, Issue 2, pp 187–196 | Cite as

Forwarding Group Multicast Protocol (FGMP) for multihop, mobile wireless networks

  • Ching–Chuan Chiang
  • Mario Gerla
  • Lixia Zhang


In this paper we propose a new multicast protocol for multihop mobile wireless networks. Instead of forming multicast trees, a group of nodes in charge of forwarding multicast packets is designated according to members' requests. Multicast is then carried out via “scoped” flooding over such a set of nodes. The forwarding group is periodically refreshed to handle topology/membership changes. Multicast using forwarding group takes advantage of wireless broadcast transmissions and reduces channel and storage overhead, thus improving the performance and scalability. The key innovation with respect to wired multicast schemes like DVMRP is the use of flags rather than upstream/downstream link state, making the protocol more robust to mobility. The dynamic reconfiguration capability makes this protocol particularly suitable for mobile networks. The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated via simulation and is compared to that of DVMRP and global flooding.


Medium Access Control Multicast Tree Multicast Group Medium Access Control Layer Forwarding Node 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    R. Bagrodia and W. Liao, Maisie: A language for the design of efficient discrete-event simulations, IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering (1994) 225-238.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    T. Ballardie, P. Francis and J. Crowcroft, Core Based Trees (CBT): an architecture for scalable inter-domain multicast routing, in: ACM SIGCOMM' 93(1993) pp. 85-95.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    K.L. Calvert and E.W. Zegura, Core selection methods for multicast routing, Technical Report (GIT-CC-95/15), Georgia Institute of Technology (1995).Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    C.-C. Chiang, H.-K. Wu, W. Liu and M. Gerla, Routing in clustered multihop, mobile wireless networks with fading channel, in: The IEEE Singapore International Conference on Networks(1997) pp. 197-211.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    M.S. Corson and S.G. Batsell, A Reservation-Based Multicast (RBM) routing protocol for mobile networks: Initial route construction phase, Wireless Networks 1 (1995) 427-450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    B.P. Crow, I. Widjaja, J.G. Kim and P. Sakai, Investigation of the IEEE 802.11 Medium Access Control (MAC), in: IEEE INFOCOM' 97(1997).Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    S.E. Deering, Multicast routing in a datagram internetwork, Dissertation, Stanford University (1991).Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    S.E. Deering and D.R. Cheriton, Multicast routing in datagram internetworks and extended LANs, ACM Transactions on Computer Systems (1990) 85-111.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    S. Deering, D. Estrin, D. Farinacci, V. Jacobson, C.-G. Liu and L. Wei, The PIM Architecture for Wide-Area Multicast Routing, IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking 4 (1996) 153-162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    S. Floyd, V. Jacobson, S. McCanne, C.-G. Liu and L. Zhang, A reliable multicast framework for light-weight sessions and application level framing, in: ACM SIGCOMM' 95(1995) pp. 342-356.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    M. Gerla and C.-C. Chiang, Multicast routing in multihop, mobile wireless networks, Technical report, Computer Science Department, University of California at Los Angeles (1998).Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    M. Gerla and J.T. Tsai, Multicluster, mobile, multimedia radio network, Wireless Networks 1 (1995) 255-265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    P. Karn, MACA: a new channel access method for packet radio, in: IEEE Computer Networks Conference(1990).Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    L. Kleinrock and J. Silvester, Optimum transmission radii for packet radio networks of why six is a magic number, in: Nat. Telecom. Conf.(1978).Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    C.R. Lin and M. Gerla, A distributed architecture for multimedia in dynamic wireless networks, in: IEEE GLOBECOM' 95(1995) pp. 1468-1472.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    C.R. Lin and M. Gerla, MACA/PR: an asynchronous multimedia multihop wireless network, in: IEEE INFOCOM' 97(1997).Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    W.W. Liu, C.-C. Chiang, H.-K. Wu, V. Jha, M. Gerla and R. Bagrodia, Parallel simulation environment for mobile wireless networks, in: 1996 Winter Simulation Conference Proceedings (WSC' 96)(1996) pp. 650-612.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    E. Pagani and G.P. Rossi, Reliable broadcast in mobile multihop packets networks, in: ACM MOBICOM' 97(1997) pp. 34-42.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    C.E. Perkins and P. Bhagwat, Highly dynamic destination-sequenced distance-vector routing (DSDV) for mobile computers, in: ACM SIGCOMM' 94(1994) pp. 234-244.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ching–Chuan Chiang
    • 1
  • Mario Gerla
    • 1
  • Lixia Zhang
    • 1
  1. 1.Computer Science DepartmentUniversity of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations