Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 32, Issue 4, pp 835–849 | Cite as

Fuel ash corrosion of boiler and superheater tubes

  • S. C SRIVASTAVA
  • K. M GODIWALLA
  • M. K BANERJEE

Abstract

The scientific pursuit of the determination of mechanisms of corrosion of metals and alloys operating at high temperatures in thermal power generating environments has resulted in volumes of reported data, yet little achievement has been made so far. In reviewing the literature, it has been attempted here to indicate the diversified nature of the problems and the characteristics of various parameters such as mineralogical constituents of the fuel, fuel ash and various products of combustion (e.g. sulphurous oxides, sulphates, pyrosulphates, sulphides, etc.) in monitoring the rate of reactions, and hence corrosion, of component materials. Rapid and intensive corrosion attack due to conjoint action of gaseous, chemical and liquid phases under normal boiler operating conditions have been expressed to offer a really challenging situation for further studies.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    P. KRATINA and J. MCMILLAN, “Fly-ash Erosion in Utility Boilers - Prediction and Protection”, presented at the Canadian Electrical Association Conference, Regina, Sask., October 1982.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    T. FLATLEY, E. P. LATHAM and C. W. MORRIS, Mater. Perform. 20 (1981) 12.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    V. R. SUBRAMANIAN and R. R. GOPAL, in Proceedings of National Seminar on Materials of Thermal Power Plant, Bhopal, India (1994), p. 74.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    G. H. MEIER, F. S. PETTIT and N. BIRKS, in “High Temperature Oxidation and Sulphidation Processes”, edited by J. D. Embury (Pergamon Press, 1990), pp. 1-11.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    T. NARITA, Ibidpp. 70-81.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    T. NARITA and K. NISHIDA, in Proc. of 3rd Foundary J1.IIM’ Symp. Trans. Jpn Institute of Metals 24, 457 (1983).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    T. NARITA and T. ISHIKAWA, Mater. Sci. and Engng. 87 (1987) 51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Idem, in Proceedings of Symposium on High Temp. Mat. Chem., Electrochem Soc. Japan, 88 (1988) 71.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Idem, Mater. Sci. and Engng. 89 (1989) 31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    V. SRINIVASAN and D. E. GOODMAN, in “Corrosion and Particle Erosion at High Temperatures”, edited by V. Srinivasan and K. Vedula (TMS, PA, 1989), pp. 178-89.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    D. B. MENDOWCROFT and M. I. MANNING, eds. “Resistant Materials for Coal Conversion”, (Elsevier, New York 1989).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    J. F. NORTON, ed. “High Temperature Corrosion in Coal Gasification Atmosphere (Elsevier, New York 1984).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    M. F. ROTHMAN, ed. “High Temperature Corrosion in Engineering Systems” (AIME, NY 1985).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    M. SCHULTZ, Oxidation of Metals 8 (1986) 409.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    M. UZ and O. N. CARLSON, J. Less Comm Met 79 (1981) 409.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Idem, ibid, 116 (1986) 317.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    G. SARKAR, S. SAKHA, K. P. DASCHOWDHURY, S.K. HAZRA and S. K. SEN, Proceedings of the Ninth International Coal Preparation Congress, edited by Indian Coal Committee (New Delhi, India, 1982) pp. G. 113.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    J. D. WATT, B. C.U. R. A. Monthly Bul. 49 (1982) 23.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    A. R. POWELL, Ind. Engng. Chem. 12 (1920) 1069.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    R. C. CONEY, H. A. GRABOWSKI and B. T. CROSS, Trans. Amer. Soc. Mech. Eng. {vn 71} (1949) 951.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    M. T. MACKOWSKY, Femerungstechnik31 (1943) 143.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    P. F. KERR and J. L. KULP, Amer. Min. 33 (1948) 387.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    W. G. MARSKELL, J. M. MILLER and J. E. RAYNER, Fuel 25 (1946) 100.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    W. OELSEN and H. MAETZ, Mitt. Kaiser with Inst. Eisen Dusseldorf 21 (1936)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    W. L. BEDWELL, Royal Inst. Chem. Monograph No. 9 (1952)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    H. E. CROSSLEY, J. Inst. Fuel 25 (1952) 221.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    N. S. BORNSTEIN and M. A. DECRESCENT, Trans. AIME 245 (1963) 583.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Idem, Metall. Trans. 2 (1971) 2875.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    J. A. GOEBEL and F. S. PETTIT, ibid 1 (1970) 1943.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    J. A. GOEBEL, F. S. PETTIT and G. W. GOWARD, Ibid 4 (1973) 261.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    A. LEVY and E. L. MERRYMAN, Combust. Flame 9 (1965) 229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    J. M. QUETS and W. H. DRESHER, J. Mater. 4 (1969) 583.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    R. A. RAPP and K. S. GOTO, The Hot Corrosion of Metals by Molten Salts, Symposium on Fused Salt, 1978 (The Electrochemical Society, Princeton, NJ, 1979).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    H. KRISCH, “Corrosion in Combustion Chambers Caused by Slag Attack and Flue Gases of Varying Composition” in Proceedings of Conference Mechanism of Corrosion by Fuel Impurities, Marchwood, UK, 1963 (Butterworth, London, 1963), p. 508.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    H. E. CROSSLEY, J. Inst. Fuel 40 (1967) 342.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    C. CAIM JR. and W. NELSON, Trans. ASME J. Eng. Power 83 (1961) 468.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    P. M. BRISTER and M. N. BRESSLER, “Long-term Experience with Steel and Alloy Superheater Tubes in Power Boiler Services”, Joint Conference on Creep, Institute of Mechanical Engineers, 1 (1963) 7.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    R. W. EVANS and B. WILSHIRE, Proc. Inst. of Met. London(1985) 314.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    R. VISWNATHAN, “Damage Mechanism and Life Assessment of High Temperature Components”, ASM(1989) 229.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    J. R. RYLANDS and J. R. JENKINSON, J. Inst. Fuel 27 (1954) 299.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    C. J. SLUNDER, A. M. HALL and J. H. JACKSON, Trans. ASME 75 (1953) 1015.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    A. B. HEADLEY, T. D. BROWN and A. SHUTTLE WORTH, ASME, No. 65-WA/CD-4 (1965).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    E. RAASK, Power Ind. Res. 1 (1981) 233.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    W. NELSON and C. CAIN JR., Trans. ASME, J. Eng. Power 82 (1960) 194.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    H. E. CROSSLEY, “Fuel and the future”, (H. M. Stationery office, London 1948) 36.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    P. MULER,Chem. Eng. Tech. 31 (1959) 345.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    H. GOKOSOYER and K. ROSS, Shell Res. Ltd., Thoronton Res. Centre Report, M (1962) 218.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    E. S. LISLE and J. D. SENSENBAUGH, Combustion 36 (1965) 12.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    C. WAGNER, Z. Phys. Chem. 21B (1933) 25.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    R. F. VOITOVICH and E. I. GOLOVKO, Proc. III ICMC, NACE (Canada) 4, (1966) p 81.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    A. K. MOZA, K. SHOJ and L. G. AUSTIN, J. Inst. Fuel 53 (1980) 17.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    P. MAYER and A. V. MANOLESCU, Influence of HCl on Corr. of Boiler Steel in Synthetic Flue gas Corr. NACE, 36 (1980) 369.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    B. W. BURROWS and G. J. HILLS, Jl. Inst. Fuel 39, (1966) 168.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    M. J. FOUNTAIN, ibid178.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    J. STRINGER, Materials Selection for In-Bed Components in Fludized Bed Combusion Systems, paper presented to the DOE/WVU Conference on Fludized Bed Combusiont, Morgantown, West Virginia, October 1980.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Idem, High Temperature Corrosion in Mixed Gaseous Oxidants in metals and Energy, Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Conference of the Australasian Inst. of Metals, Auckland, New England, May 1980, pp. 14346.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    P. J. GROBNER, C. C. CLARKE, P. V. ANDREAE and W. R. SYLVESTER, Steam-side Oxidation and Exfoliation of Cr-Mo Superheater and Reheater Steels, paper No. 172 presented at Corrosion 80, a NACE Conference, Chicago, March 1980.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    P. MAYER and A. V. MANOLSEU, in Proceedings of High Temperature Corrosion, NACE-6, Conference held at San Diego, CA, March 1981, edited by R. A. Rapp (1983), p. 368.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    A. V. LEVY, WEAR-Elsevier Publication, Switzerland, 108(1) (1986) 1.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    A. V. LEVY and E. SLAMOVICH, ibid, 110(2) (1986) 117.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    A. V. LEVY and Y. F. MAN, ibid, 111(2) (1986) 135.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    I. G. WRIGHT, Mater. Sci.& Engng. 88 (1987) 261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    D. A. SHORES and W. C. FRANG, J. Electrochem Soc. 128 (1981) 346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    W. T. REID, “External corrosion and Deposits” (Elsevier, New York 1971).Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    A. HENDRY and D. J. LEES, Corrosion Sci. 20 (1980) 383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    R. C. CONEY, B. J. CROSS and W. T. REID, Trans. ASME 67 (1945) 289.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    H. H. KRAUSE, A. LEVY, and W. T. REID, Trans. ASME, J. Engng. Power 90 (1961) A38.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    C. H. ANDERSON and C. W. GODDARD, J. Inst. Fuel 41 (1968) 357.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    A. J. BLAZEWIPZ and M. GOLD, ASME haper 79, WA/FH-6 (1979).Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    D. C. HILTY and W. CRAFTES, Trans. AIME 194 (1952) 1307.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    R. VOGEL and W. FULLING, Festschriften, J. Arvid, Hedrall(1948) 597.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    T. ROSEUQUIST, JISI 176 (1954) 37.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    F. S. PETTIT, J. A. GOEBEL and G. W. GOWARD, Corrosion Sci. 9 (1969) 903.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    N. BIRKS, Oxidation of Metals in Atmospheres containing the Oxidants, in “High Temperature Gas-Metal Reactions in Mixed Environments”, edited by Z. A. Doroulis and S. Janssen (AIME-TMS, Boston, 1973), p. 322.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    A. RAHMEL and J. A. GONZALEZ, Werkstoffe und Korrosion 21 (1970) 925.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Ibid 22 (1971) 283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    T. FLATLEY, and N. BIRKS, JISI 209 (1971) 523.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    M. R. WOOTON, and N. BRIKS, Corrosion Sci. 12 (1972) 829.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    E. RAASK, “Mineral Impurities in Coal Combination”, (Hemisphere, New York 1985) p 326.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    A. J. B. CUTLER and E. RAASK, Corrosion Sci. 21 (1981) 789.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    K. N. STRAFFORD and R. MANIFOLD, in Proceedings of the 4th Int. Cong. on Metallic Corr. NACE, Houston, Texas (1972) 249.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    K. HAFFE and A. RAHMEL, Z. Physik. Chem. 199 (1952) 152.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    P. V. GELD and A. K. KRASOVSKAYA, Zhur. Fiz. Khim 34 (1960) 1585, 1721.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    A. RAHMEL, J. Electrochem. Soc. 107 (1960) 264.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    W. D. KINGERY, ed. Kinetics Of High Temperature Processes (John Wiley, New York, 1959) p 97.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    A. BRUCKMAN,Corrosion Science 7 (1967) 51.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    C. WAGNER, J. Electrochem. Soc. 103 (1956) 627.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    S. MROWEC Roczniki Chem. 34 (1960) 337.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    I. A. MENZIES and K. N. STRAFFORD, J. Mater. Sci. 2 (1967) 358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    S. MROWEC, in Proceedings of symp. on properties of high temp. alloys edited by Z. A. FOROULIS and F. S. PETTIT (Electrochemical Soc. USA 1977) P413.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    S. MORWEC and M. WEDRYCHOWSKA, Oxidation of Metals 13 (1979) 481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    K. N. STRAFFORD and J. M. HARRISON, in Proceedings of Int. Symp. on metals-slag-gas reactions and processes, Toronto, May 11-16, (1975) edited by Z. A. Foroulis and W. W. Smeltzer, p 464.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    K. NATESAN, Corrosion 41 (1985) 646.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    R. A. PERKINS, W. L. COONS and S. J. VORK, EPRI report (1982) ES–2452.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    D. P. WHITTLE and J. SRINGER, Phil. Trans Roy Sco. A 295 (1980) 309.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    R. A. PERKINS, High temp corrosion -Ed. R. A. Repp, NACE-6, Texas (1983).Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    D. J. BAUTER, Corrosion Science 26 (1987) 153.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Idem, Oxidation of Metals 24 (1985) 331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    H. J. GRABKE, “Selected Topics of High Temperature Chemistry” (Elsevier, UK, 1989) p. 263.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman and Hall 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. C SRIVASTAVA
    • 1
  • K. M GODIWALLA
    • 1
  • M. K BANERJEE
    • 2
  1. 1.National Metallurgical LaboratoryCouncil of Scientific and Industrial ResearchJamshedpur-India
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryRegional Institute of TechnologyJamshedpur-India

Personalised recommendations