Advertisement

Journal of Applied Electrochemistry

, Volume 31, Issue 9, pp 953–959 | Cite as

Extending the life of maintenance-free lead/acid batteries by etching of grids in sodium hydroxide

  • R. de Marco
  • A. Rochliadi
  • J. Jones
Article

Abstract

The surfaces of lead–calcium–tin grids etched in NaOH have been characterized by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). It is shown that the basic lead carbonate phase, hydrocerussite, present on the surfaces of lead–calcium–tin grids is removed via etching in NaOH, due presumably to the dissolution of lead(II) salts as water soluble lead(II) complexes. Charge/discharge cycling data for non-antimonial batteries fabricated by using untreated and grid etched 2 V cells have demonstrated that the removal of grid surface hydrocerussite diminishes the rate of premature capacity loss displayed by non-antimonial batteries in the early stages of cycling. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the corrosion layers of positive plates for untreated and grid etched cells, in the initial stages of cycling, demonstrated that the removal of grid surface hydrocerussite ameliorates the problem caused by passivation of the grid corrosion layer through the formation of an uninterrupted underlayer of PbO.

grid corrosion layer lead/acid battery plate passivation positive active material premature capacity loss 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    K.K. Constanti, A.F. Hollenkamp, M.J. Koop and K. McGregor, J. Power Sources 55 (1995) 269.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    A.F. Hollenkamp, K.K. Constanti, M.J. Koop, L. Apateanu, M. Calabek and K. Micka, J. Power Sources 48 (1994) 195.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    A. Winsel, E. Voss and U. Hullmeine, J. Power Sources 30 (1990) 209.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    M. Calabek, K. Micka, P. Baca, P. Krivak and V. Smarda, J. Power Sources 62 (1996) 161.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    P.T. Moseley, J. Power Sources 59 (1996) 81.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    R.H. Newnham and W.G.A. Baldsing, J. Power Sources 66 (1997) 27.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    E. Bashtavelova and A. Winsel, J. Power Sources 67 (1997) 93.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    S. Atlung and T. Jacobsen, J. Power Sources 66 (1997) 147.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    A.F. Hollenkamp, J. Power Sources 59 (1996) 87.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    D. Pavlov, J. Power Sources 46 (1993) 171.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    M.K. Dimitrov and D. Pavlov, J. Power Sources 46 (1993) 203.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    D. Pavlov, J. Power Sources 53 (1995) 9.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    D. Pavlov, J. Power Sources 48 (1994) 179.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    D. Pavlov, A. Dakhouche and T. Rogachev, J. Appl. Electrochem. 27 (1997) 720.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    A. El Ghachcham Amrani, Ph. Steyer, J. Steinmetz, P. Delcroix and G. Le Caer, J. Power Sources 64 (1997) 35.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    R. De Marco and J. Liesegang, Appl. Surf. Sci. 84 (1995) 237.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    R. De Marco, J. Appl. Electrochem. 27 (1997) 99.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    R. De Marco and J. Jones, J. Appl. Electrochem. 30 (2000) 77.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    E. Rocca and J. Steinmetz, Electrochim. Acta 44 (1999) 4611.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    S. Fouache, A. Chabrol, G. Fossati, M. Bassini, M.J. Sainz and L. Atkins, J. Power Sources 78 (1999) 12.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    E.M. Lehockey, D. Limoges, G. Palumbo, J. Sklarchuk, K. Tomantschger and A. Vincze, J. Power Sources 78 (1999) 79.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    F.A. Cotton and G. Wilkinson, 'Advanced Inorganic Chemistry. A Comprehensive Text' (J. Wiley & Sons, New York, 4th edn, 1980).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    E. Purushothama Rao and F.L. Marsh, US Patent 4 713 304 (1987) 1.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    M.P. Seah, Surf. Interface Anal. 14 (1989) 488.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    C.D. Wagner, L.E. Davis, M.V. Zeller, J.A. Taylor, R.M. Raymond and L.H. Gale, Surf. Interface Anal. 3 (1981) 211.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    J.F. Moulder, W.F. Stickle, P.E. Sobol and K.D. Bombden (Eds), 'Handbook of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy' (Perkin-Elmer, Eden Prairie, MN, 1992).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    V. Young and P.C. McCaslin, Anal. Chem. 57 (1985) 880.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    J.S. Hammond, S.W. Gaarenstroom and N. Winograd, Anal. Chem. 47 (1975) 2193.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    N.E. Bagshaw, in T. Kiely and B.W. Baxter (Eds), 'Research and Development in Non-Mechanical Electrical Power Sources, Power Sources 12' (International Power Sources, UK, 1988).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. de Marco
    • 1
  • A. Rochliadi
    • 1
  • J. Jones
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Applied ChemistryCurtin University of TechnologyPerthWestern Australia, 6845, Australia

Personalised recommendations