Plant Ecology

, Volume 153, Issue 1–2, pp 87–107 | Cite as

Invertebrates in the canopy of tropical rain forests How much do we really know?

  • Yves Basset


The current state of knowledge of canopy invertebrates in tropical rain forests is reviewed using data drawn, without bias toward taxon, collecting method or biogeographical region, from 89 studies concerned with mass-collecting (>1000 individuals). The review is intended to identify the most serious gaps and biases in the distribution of higher taxa among forest types and biogeographical regions. With respect to knowledge, biogeographical regions can be ranked as Neotropical > Australian > Oriental > Afrotropical. The canopy of lowland wet and subtropical forests has been studied in greater detail, whereas the canopy of lowland dry and montane forests is much less well known. Collecting techniques influence greatly the present knowledge of canopy invertebrates. Invertebrates other than arthropods, often abundant in epiphytic habitats, phytotelmata and perched litter, are virtually unknown. The abundance of several groups, such as Acari, Collembola and Isoptera, is almost certainly seriously underestimated. Densities of invertebrate individuals in the canopy of tropical rain forests appear to be lower than in temperate forests, although invertebrate abundance is dissipated by the high standing-biomass of rain forests. Coleoptera, particularly Staphylinidae, Curculionidae and Chrysomelidae, along with Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera and Araneae appear to be the most speciose taxa in the canopy, and it is probable that this reflects their range of feeding habits and exploitation of rain forests habitats. The distribution of individuals among the major arthropod orders and across the studies examined is complex and depends on many factors. The amount of variance that can be directly explained by biogeography, forest types (subtropical, wet, dry or montane), or collecting methods appears to be about 11%. The explained variance increases when considering major families of Coleoptera (28%) or subfamilies of Chrysomelidae (40%). In all cases, the variance explained by the type of forest is much higher than by that explained by biogeography. These conclusions are similar when considering various prey-predator relationships in the canopy. This suggests that, at the higher taxa level, the composition of the invertebrate fauna in the canopy may vary comparatively more across forest types than across biogeographical regions and this is discussed briefly from a conservation viewpoint.

Biodiversity Biogeography Collecting methods Conservation Predator-prey relationships Species richness 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adis, J. 1997. Terrestrial invertebrates: survival strategies, group spectrum, dominance and activity patterns. Pp. 318–330. In: Junk, W. J. (ed.), The Central Amazon Floodplain. Ecological studies, Vol. 126. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  2. Adis, J., Basset, Y., Floren, A., Hammond, P. M. & Linsenmair, K. E. 1998. Canopy fogging of an overstorey tree-Recommendations for standardization. Ecotropica 4: 93–97.Google Scholar
  3. Adis, J., Lubin, Y. D. & Montgomery, G. G. 1984. Arthropods from the canopy of inundated and Terra firme forest near Manaus, Brazil, with critical consideration on the Pyrethrum-fogging technique. Stud. Neotrop. Fauna Environ. 19: 223–236.Google Scholar
  4. Adis, J., Paarmann, W., da Fonseca, C. R. V. & Rafael, J. A. 1997a. Knockdown efficiency of natural pyrethrum and survival rate of living arthropods obtained by canopy fogging in Central Amazonia. Pp. 67–81. In: Stork, N. E., Adis, J. & Didham, R. K. (eds.), Canopy arthropods. Chapman & Hall, London.Google Scholar
  5. Adis, J. & Righi, G. 1989. Mass migration and life cycle adaptation — a survival strategy of terrestrial earthworms in Central Amazonian inundation forests. Amazonia 11: 23–30.Google Scholar
  6. Adis, J., Scheller, U. Wellington, J. de M., Rochus, C., Gomes Rodrigues, J. M. 1997b. Symphyla from Amazonian non-flooded upland forests and their adaptations to inundation forests. Ent. Scand. Suppl. 51: 307–317.Google Scholar
  7. Allison, A., Samuelson, G. A. & Miller, S. E. 1997. Patterns of beetles species diversity in Castanopsis acuminatissima (Fagaceae) trees studied with canopy fogging techniques in mid-montane New Guinea rain forest. Pp. 224–236. In: Stork, N. E., Adis, J. & Didham, R. K. (eds.), Canopy arthropods. Chapman & Hall, London.Google Scholar
  8. Amedegnato, C. 1997. Diversity of an Amazonian canopy grasshopper community in relation to resource partitioning and phylogeny. Pp. 281–319. In: Stork, N. E., Adis, J. & Didham, R. K. (eds.), Canopy Arthropods. Chapman & Hall, London.Google Scholar
  9. André, H. M., Lebrun, P. & Noti, M.-I. 1992. Biodiversity in Africa: a plea for more data. J. Afr. Zool. 106: 3–15.Google Scholar
  10. Bakarr, M. I., Gbakima, A. A., Bah, Z. 1991. Intestinal helminth parasites in free-living monkeys from a west African rain forest. Afr. J. Ecol. 29: 170–172.Google Scholar
  11. Barrios, H. 1997. Fluctuacion poblacional de curculionidos (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) capturados en trampa de luz en la isla Barro Colorado. Scientia 12: 55–68.Google Scholar
  12. Basset, Y. 1991. The taxonomic composition of the arthropod fauna associated with an Australian rain forest tree. Aust. J. Zool. 39: 171–190.Google Scholar
  13. Basset, Y. 1997. Species — abundance and body size relationships in insect herbivores associated with New Guinea forest trees, with particular reference to insect host-specificity. Pp. 237–264. In: Stork, N. E., Adis, J. & Didham, R. K. (eds.), Canopy arthropods. Chapman & Hall, London.Google Scholar
  14. Basset, Y. 2000. Insect herbivores foraging on seedlings in an unlogged rain forest in Guyana: spatial and temporal considerations. Stud. Neotrop. Fauna Environ., 35: 115–129.Google Scholar
  15. Basset, Y., Aberlenc, H.-P. & Delvare, G. 1992. Abundance and stratification of foliage arthropods in a lowland rain forest of Cameroon. Ecol. Entomol. 17: 310–318.Google Scholar
  16. Basset, Y., Charles, E. C. & Novotny, V. 1999. Insect herbivores on parent trees and conspecific seedlings in a rain forest in Guyana. Selbyana 20: 146–158.Google Scholar
  17. Basset, Y., Novotny, V., Miller, S. E. & Pyle, R. 2000. Quantifying biodiversity: Experience with parataxonomists and digital photography in New Guinea and Guyana. BioScience 50: 899–908.Google Scholar
  18. Basset, Y. & Samuelson, G. A. 1996. Ecological characteristics of an arboreal community of Chrysomelidae in Papua New Guinea. Pp. 243–262. In: Jolivet, P. H. A. & Cox, M. L. (eds.), Chrysomelidae Biology. Volume 2: Ecological studies. SPB Academic Publishing, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  19. Basset, Y., Samuelson, G. A., Allison, A. & Miller, S. E. 1996a. How many host-specific insect species feed on a species of tropical tree? Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 59: 201–216.Google Scholar
  20. Basset, Y., Samuelson, G. A. & Miller, S. E. 1996b. Similarities and contrasts in the local insect faunas associated with ten forest tree species of New Guinea. Pac. Sci. 50: 157–183.Google Scholar
  21. Basset, Y., Springate, N. D., Aberlenc, H.-P. & Delvare, G. 1997. A review of methods for sampling arthropods in tree canopies. Pp. 27–52. In: Stork, N. E., Adis, J. & Didham, R. K. (eds.), Canopy arthropods. Chapman & Hall, London.Google Scholar
  22. Beebe, W. 1925. Studies of a tropical jungle; one quarter of a square mile of jungle at Kartabo, British Guiana. Zoologica 6: 4–193.Google Scholar
  23. Behan-Pelletier, V. M., Paoletti, M. G., Bissett, B. & Stinner, B. R. 1993. Oribatid mites of forest habitats in northern Venezuela. Trop. Zool., Special Issue 1: 39–54.Google Scholar
  24. Broadhead, E. & Wolda, H. 1985. The diversity of Psocoptera in two tropical forests in Panama. J. Anim. Ecol. 54: 739–754.Google Scholar
  25. Brown, W. L. Jr. 1973. A comparison of the Hylean and Congo-West African rain forest ant faunas. Pp. 161–185. In: Meggers, B. J., Ayensu, E. S. & Duckworth, W. D. (eds.), Tropical forest ecosystems in Africa and South America: a comparative review. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington.Google Scholar
  26. Casson, D. S. & Hodkinson, I. D. 1991. The Hemiptera (Insecta) communities of tropical rain forest in Sulawesi. Zool. J. Linnol. Soc. 102: 253–275.Google Scholar
  27. Chabaud, A. G. & Bain, O. 1990. Three new filariae from African rain forest birds. Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat. A 12: 9–18.Google Scholar
  28. Chessel D. & Dolédec, S. 1992. ADE Version 3.4. HyperCard stacks and quick basic Microsoft programme library for the analysis of environmental data, user's manual, modules graphiques, fiches pratiques, URA CNRS 1451, Université Lyon 1, Villeurbane, France.Google Scholar
  29. Chey, V. K., Holloway, J. D., Hambler, C. & Speight, M. R. 1998. Canopy knockdown of arthropods in exotic plantations and natural forest in Sabah, north-east Borneo, using insectidal mist-blowing. Bull. Ent. Res. 88: 15–24.Google Scholar
  30. Clastrier, J. & Delecolle, J. C. 1997. Description de Forcipomya (Trichohelea) roubaudi n. sp., ectoparasite d'un Hétéroptè re Reduviidae capturé dans la canopée de la forê t guyanaise (Diptera, Ceratapogonidae). Bull. Soc. Ent. France 102: 379–383.Google Scholar
  31. Coley, P. D. & Aide, T. M. 1991. Comparison of herbivory and plant defense in temperate and tropical broad-leaved forests. Pp. 25–49. In: Price P. W., Lewinsohn, T. M., Fernandes, G. W. & Benson, W. W. (eds.), Plant-animal interactions: evolutionary ecology in tropical and temperate regions. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  32. Coley, P. D. & Barone, J. A. 1996. Herbivory and plant defenses in tropical forests. Annu. Rev. Ecol. 27: 305–335.Google Scholar
  33. Corbet, P. S. 1961. Entomological studies from a high tower in Mpanga Forest, Uganda. VI. Nocturnal flight activity of Culicidae and Tabanidae as indicated by light traps. Trans. Roy. Ent. Soc. Lond. 113: 301–314.Google Scholar
  34. Cotgreave, P., Hill, M. J. & Middleton, D. A. J. 1993. The relationship between body size and population size in bromeliad tank faunas. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 49: 367–380.Google Scholar
  35. Cowie, R. H. 1992. Evolution and extinction of Partulidae, endemic Pacific island land snails. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. B 335: 167–191.Google Scholar
  36. Davidson, D. W. 1997. The role of resource imbalances in the evolutionary ecology of tropical arboreal ants. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 61: 153–181.Google Scholar
  37. Davies, J. G., Stork, N. E., Brendell, M. J. D. & Hine, S. J. 1997. Beetle species diversity and faunal similarity in Venezuelan rain forest tree canopies. Pp. 85–103. In: Stork, N. E., Adis, J. & Didham, R. K. (eds.), Canopy arthropods. Chapman & Hall, London.Google Scholar
  38. Davis, A. J. & Sutton, S. L. 1998. The effects of rain forest canopy loss on arboreal dung beetles in Borneo: implications for the measurement of biodiversity in derived tropical ecosystems. Diversity Distrib. 4: 167–173.Google Scholar
  39. Dejean, A., Belin, M. & McKey, D. 1992. Les relations plantesfourmis dans la canopée. Pp. 76–80. In: Hallé, F. & Pascal, O. (eds.) Biologie d'une canopée de forê t équatoriale-II. Rapport de Mission: radeau des cimes octobre novembre 1991, Réserve de Campo, Cameroun. Fondation Elf, Paris.Google Scholar
  40. Dejean, A., Orivel, J., Corbara, B., Delabie, J. & Teillier, L. 1998. La mosaï que des fourmis arboricoles. Pp. 140–153. In: Hallé, F. (ed.) Biologie d'une Canopée de Forê t Equatoriale-III. Rapport de la Mission d'Exploration Scientifique de la Canopée de Guyane, Octobre-Décembre 1996. Pro-Natura International & Opération Canopée, Paris.Google Scholar
  41. DeVries, P. J., Murray, D. & Lande, R. 1997. Species diversity in vertical, horizontal and temporal dimensions of a fruit-feeding butterfly community in an Ecuadorian rain forest. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 62: 343–364.Google Scholar
  42. Dial, R. & Roughgarden, J. 1995. Experimental removal of insectivores from rain forest canopy: direct and indirect effects. Ecology 76: 1821–1834.Google Scholar
  43. Didham, R. K. 1997. Dipteran tree-crown assemblages in a diverse southern temperate rain forest. Pp. 320–343. In: Stork, N. E., Adis, J. & Didham, R. K. (eds.), Canopy arthropods. Chapman & Hall, London.Google Scholar
  44. Ebersolt, G. 1990. Bilan technique partie radeau. Pp. 15–26. In: Hallé, F. & Blanc, P. (eds.), Biologie d'une canopée de forê t équatoriale. Rapport de Mission. Radeau des Cimes Octobre-Novembre 1989, Guyane Franç aise. Montpellier II and CNRS Paris VI, Montpellier/Paris.Google Scholar
  45. Eggleton, P., Bignell, D. E., Sands, W. A., Mawdsley, N. A., Lawton, J. H., Wood, T. G. & Bignell, N. C. 1996. The diversity, abundance and biomass of termites (Isoptera) under differing levels of forest disturbance in the Mbalmayo Forest Reserve, southern Cameroon. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. B 351: 51–68.Google Scholar
  46. Elton, C. S. 1975. Conservation and the low population density of invertebrates inside neotropical rain forests. Biol. Cons. 7: 3–15.Google Scholar
  47. Erwin, T. L. 1982. Tropical forests: their richness in Coleoptera and other arthropod species. Col. Bull. 36: 74–75.Google Scholar
  48. Erwin, T. L. 1983. Beetles and other insects of tropical forest canopies at Manaus, Brazil, sampled by insecticidal fogging. Pp. 59–76. In: Sutton, S. L., Whitmore, T. C. & Chadwick, A. C. (eds.), Tropical rain forest: ecology and management. Oxford, Blackwell.Google Scholar
  49. Erwin, T. L. 1989. Canopy arthropod biodiversity: a chronology of sampling techniques and results. Rev. Per. Ent. 32: 71–77.Google Scholar
  50. Erwin, T. L. 1995. Measuring arthropod biodiversity in the tropical forest canopy. Pp. 109–127. In: Lowman, M. D. & Nadkarni, N. M. (eds.), Forest canopies. Academic Press, San Diego.Google Scholar
  51. Erwin, T. L. & Scott, J. C. 1980. Seasonal and size patterns, trophic structure and richness of Coleoptera in the tropical arboreal ecosystem: the fauna of the tree Luehea seemannii Triana and Planch in the Canal Zone of Panama. Col. Bull. 34: 305–322.Google Scholar
  52. Farrell, B. D. & Erwin, T. L. 1988. Leaf-beetle community structure in an amazonian rain forest canopy. Pp. 73–90. In: Jolivet, P., Petitpierre, E. & Hsiao, T. H. (eds.), Biology of chrysomelidae. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  53. Fisk, F. W. 1983. Abundance and diversity of arboreal Blattaria in moist tropical forests in the Panama Canal area and Costa Rica. Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. 108: 479–490.Google Scholar
  54. Floren, A. & Linsenmair, K. E. 1997. Diversity and recolonization dynamics of selected arthropod groups on different tree species in a lowland rain forest in Sabah, Malaysia with special reference to Formicidae. Pp. 344–381. In: Stork, N. E., Adis, J. & Didham, R. K. (eds.), Canopy arthropods. Chapman & Hall, London.Google Scholar
  55. Floren, A. & Linsenmair, K. E. 2001. Changes in arboreal arthropod communities along a disturbance gradient. Plant Ecol. 153: 153–167 (this volume).Google Scholar
  56. Fonseca, C. R. V. da, Adis, J. & Martius, C. 1998. Mechanisms that maintain tropical diversity-a project of Teuton-Brazilian cooperation 1991–1996. Acta Amazon. 28: 205–215.Google Scholar
  57. Fragoso, C. & Rojas-Fernandez, P. 1996. Earthworms inhabiting bromeliads in Mexican tropical rain forests: ecological and historical determinants. J. Trop. Ecol. 12: 729–734.Google Scholar
  58. Franklin, E., Adis, J., Woas, S. 1997. The oribatid mites. Pp. 331–349. In: Junk, W. J. (ed.), The Central Amazon floodplain. Ecological Studies, Vol. 126. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  59. Gadagkar, R., Chandrashekara, K. & Nair, P. 1990. Insect species diversity in the tropics: sampling methods and a case study. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 87: 337–353.Google Scholar
  60. Gagné, W. C. 1979. Canopy-associated arthropods in Acacia Koa and Metrosideros trees communities along an altitudinal transect on Hawaï Island. Pac. Ins. 21: 56–82.Google Scholar
  61. Galindo, P., Trapido, H., Carpenter, S. J., Blanton, F. S. 1956. The abundance cycles of arboreal mosquitoes during six years at a sylvan yellow fever locality in Panama. Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. 49: 543–547.Google Scholar
  62. Garcia, M. N. J. 1999. Estructura y dinamica de los insectos del orden Coleoptera en la copa del arbol Luehea seemannii Triana y Planch 1862 (Tiliaceae), en el dosel del bosque del Parque Metropolitano, Panama. Tesis de Maestria en Ecologia y Conservació n, Universidad Santa Maria La Antigua, Panama.Google Scholar
  63. Garrison, R. W. & Willig, M. R. 1996. Arboreal invertebrates. Pp. 183–245. In: Reagan, D. P. & Waide, R. B. (eds.), The food web of a tropical rain forest. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  64. Godfray, H. C., Lewis, O. T. & Memmott, J. 1999. Studying insect diversity in the tropics. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Biol. Sci. 354: 1811–1824.Google Scholar
  65. Guilbert, E. 1997 Arthropod biodiversity in the canopy of New Caledonian forests. Pp. 265–277. In: Stork, N. E., Adis, J. & Didham, R. K. (eds.), Canopy arthropods. Chapman & Hall, London.Google Scholar
  66. Hammond, P. M. 1990. Insect abundance and diversity in the Dumoga-Bone National Park, N. Sulawesi, with special reference to the beetle fauna of lowland rain forest in the Toraut region. Pp. 197–254. In: Knight, W. J. & Holloway, J. D. (eds.), Insects and the rain forests of South East Asia (Wallacea). The Royal Entomological Society of London, London.Google Scholar
  67. Hammond, P. M. 1992. Species inventory. Pp. 17–39. In: Groombridge, B. (ed.), Global biodiversity, status of the earth's living resources. Chapman & Hall, London.Google Scholar
  68. Hammond, P. M. 1995. Magnitude and distribution of biodiversity. Pp. 113–138. In: Heywood, V. T. & Watson, R. T. (eds.), Global biodiversity assessment. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  69. Hammond, P. M., R. L. Kitching & N. E. Stork 1996. The composition and richness of the tree-crown Coleoptera assemblage in an Australian subtropical forest. Ecotropica 2: 99–108.Google Scholar
  70. Hartnoll, R. G. 1964. The freshwater graspid crabs of Jamaica. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London 175: 145–169.Google Scholar
  71. Hill, C. J. & Cermak, M. 1997. A new design and some preliminary results for a flight intercept trap to sample forest canopy arthropods. Aust. J. Ent. 36: 51–55.Google Scholar
  72. Hingston, R. W. G. 1932. A naturalist in the Guiana forest. Edward Arnold & Co., London.Google Scholar
  73. Höfer, H., Brescovit, A. D. Adis, J. & Paarman, W. 1994. The spider fauna of neotropical tree canopies in Central Amazonia: first results. Stud. Neotrop. Fauna Environm. 29: 23–32.Google Scholar
  74. Holloway, J. D. 1987. Macrolepidoptera diversity in the Indo-Australian tropics: geographic, biotopic and taxonomic variations. Biol. J. Linnol. Soc. 30: 325–341.Google Scholar
  75. Hopkin, S. P. & Read, H. J. 1992. The biology of millipedes. Oxford Science Publications, Oxford.Google Scholar
  76. Janzen, D. H. 1988a. Tropical dry forests. The most endangered major tropical ecosystem. Pp. 130–137. In: Wilson, E. O. (eds.), Biodiversity. National Academy Press, Washington.Google Scholar
  77. Janzen, D. H. 1988b. Ecological characterization of a Costa Rican dry forest caterpillar fauna. Biotropica 20: 120–135.Google Scholar
  78. Janzen D. H. 1993. Taxonomy: Universal and essential infrastructure for development and management of tropical wildland biodiversity. Pp. 100–113. In: Sandlund, O. T. & Schei, P. J. (eds.), Proceedings of the Norway/UNEP expert conference on biodiversity. Directorate for Nature Management and Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Trondheim.Google Scholar
  79. Janzen, D. H. 1998. How to grow a wildland: the gardenification of nature. Ins. Sci. Appl. 17: 269–276.Google Scholar
  80. Junk, W. J. 1997. The Central Amazon Floodplain. Ecology of a pulsing system. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  81. Kato, M., Inoue, T. Hamid, A. A. Nagamitsu, T. Merdek, M. B. Nona, A. R. Itino, T., Yamane, S., Yumoto, T. 1995. Seasonality and vertical structure of light-attracted insect communities in a Dipterocarp forest in Sarawak. Res. Popul. Ecol. 37: 59–79.Google Scholar
  82. Kitching, R. L. 1987. A preliminary account of the metazoan food webs in phytotelmata from Sulawesi. Malay. Nat. J. 41: 1–12.Google Scholar
  83. Kitching, R. L. In press. Container Habitats and Foodwebs. Kluwer, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  84. Kitching, R. L., Bergelson, J. M., Lowman, M. D., McIntyre, S. & Carruthers, G. 1993. The biodiversity of arthropods from Australian rain forest canopies: general introduction, methods, sites and ordinal results. Aust. J. Ecol. 18: 181–191.Google Scholar
  85. Kitching, R. L., Mitchell, H., Morse, G. & Thebaud, C. 1997. Determinants of species richness in assemblages of canopy arthropods in rain forests. Pp. 131–150. In: Stork, N. E., Adis, J. & Didham, R. K. (eds.), Canopy arthropods. Chapman & Hall, London.Google Scholar
  86. Knight, W. J. & Holloway, J. D. 1990. Insects and the Rain Forests of South East Asia (Wallacea). Royal Entomological Society of London, London.Google Scholar
  87. Lawton, J. H. 1991. Species richness, population abundances, and body sizes in insect communities: tropical versus temperate comparisons. Pp. 209–225. In: Price, P. W., Lewinsohn, T. M., Fernandes, G. W. & Benson, W. W. (eds.), Plant-animal interactions: evolutionary ecology in tropical and temperate regions. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  88. Lawton, J. H., Bignell, D. E., Bolton, B., Bloemers, G. F., Eggleton, P., Hammond, P. M., Hodda, M., Holt, R. D., Larsen, T. B., Mawdsley, N. A., Stork, N. E., Srivastava, D. S. & Watt, A. D. 1998. Biodiversity inventories, indicator taxa and effects of habitat modification in tropical forest. Nature 391: 72–76.Google Scholar
  89. Leigh, E. G., Rand, A. S. & Windsor, D. M. 1996. The ecology of a tropical forest: seasonal rhythms and long-term changes. Second edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington.Google Scholar
  90. Lieth, H. & Werger, M. J. A. 1989. Tropical rain forest ecosystems. Biogeographical and ecological studies. Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  91. Longino, J. T. & Colwell, R. C. 1997. Biodiversity assessment using structured inventory: capturing the ant fauna of a tropical rain forest. Ecol. Appl. 7: 1263–1277.Google Scholar
  92. Lounibos, L. P. 1981. Habitat segregation among African treehole mosquitoes. Ecol. Entomol. 6: 129–154.Google Scholar
  93. Lourenço, W. R. 1988. Synopsis de la faune scorpione de la région de Manaus, Etat d' Amazonas, Brésil, avec description de deux nouvelles espè ces. Amazonia 10: 327–337.Google Scholar
  94. Louton, J., Gelhaus, J. & Bouchard, R. 1996. The aquatic macrofauna of water-filled bamboo (Poaceae: Bambusoideae: Guadua) internodes in a Peruvian lowland tropical forest. Biotropica 28: 228–242.Google Scholar
  95. Lowman, M. D. 1995. Herbivory as a canopy process in rain forest trees. Pp. 431–455. In: Lowman, M. D. & Nadkarni, N. M. (eds.), Forest canopies. Academic Press, San Diego.Google Scholar
  96. Lowman, M. D., Foster, R., Wittman, P. & Rinker, H. B. 1998. Herbivory and insect loads on epiphytes, vines and host trees in the rain forest canopy of French Guiana. Pp. 116–128. In: Hallé, F. (ed.), Biologie d'une canopée de forê t equatoriale-III. Rapport de la mission d'exploration scientifique de la Canopée de Guyane, Octobre-Décembre 1996. Pro-Natura International & Opération Canopée, Paris.Google Scholar
  97. Lowman, M. D. & Moffett, M. 1993. The ecology of tropical rain forest canopies. T.R.E.E. 8: 104–107.Google Scholar
  98. Lowman, M. D. & Wittman, P. K. 1996. Forest canopies: methods, hypotheses, and future directions. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 27: 55–81.Google Scholar
  99. Malcolm, J. R. 1997. Insect biomass in Amazonian forest fragments. Pp. 510–533. In: Stork, N. E., Adis, J. & Didham, R. K. (eds.), Canopy arthropods. Chapman & Hall, London.Google Scholar
  100. Martius, C. 1994. Diversity and ecology of termites in Amazonian forests. Pedobiologia 38: 407–428.Google Scholar
  101. May, R. M. 1994. Past efforts and future prospects towards understanding how many species there are. Pp. 71–84. In: Sollbring, O. T., van Emden, H. M. & van Oordt, P. G. W. J. (eds.), Biodiversity and global change. C.A.B. International, Wallingford.Google Scholar
  102. McClure, H. E. 1978. Some arthropods of the dipterocarp forest canopy in Malaya. Malay. Nat. J. 32: 31–51.Google Scholar
  103. Missa, O. 1999. Diversity and spatial heterogeneity of a weevil fauna living in the canopy of a tropical lowland rain forest in Papua New Guinea. Thè se, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Bruxelles.Google Scholar
  104. Moffett, M.W. & Lowman, M. D. 1995. Canopy access techniques. Pp. 3–26. In: Lowman, M. D. & Nadkarni, N. M. (eds.), Forest canopies. Academic Press, San Diego.Google Scholar
  105. Morais, J. W., Adis, J., Manhert, V., Berti-Filho, E. 1997. Abundance and phenology of Pseudoscorpiones (Arachnida) from a mixedwater inundation forest in Central Amazonia, Brazil. Rev. Suisse Zool. 104: 475–483.Google Scholar
  106. Moran, C. V. & Southwood, T. R. E. 1982. The guild composition of arthropod communities in trees. J. Anim. Ecol. 51: 289–306.Google Scholar
  107. Moran, C. V., Hoffmann, J. H. Impson, F. A. C. & Jenkins, J. F. G. 1994. Herbivorous insect species in the tree canopy of a relict South African forest. Ecol. Entomol. 19: 147–154.Google Scholar
  108. Morse, D. R., Stork, N. E. & Lawton, J. H. 1988. Species number, species abundance and body length relationships of arboreal beetles in Bornean lowland rain forest trees. Ecol. Entomol. 13: 25–37.Google Scholar
  109. Nadkarni, N. M. & Longino, J. T. 1990. Invertebrates in canopy and ground organic matter in a Neotropical montane forest, Costa Rica. Biotropica 22: 286–289.Google Scholar
  110. Ng, R. 1978. The vertical distribution of aerial insects in Pasoh Forest Reserve. Malay. Nat. J. 30: 299–305.Google Scholar
  111. Nicolai, V. 1989. Thermal properties and fauna of the bark of trees in two different African ecosystems. Oecologia 80: 421–430.Google Scholar
  112. Novotny, V. & Basset, Y. 2000. Ecological characteristics of rare species in communities of tropical insect herbivores: pondering the mystery of singletons. Oikos 89: 564–572.Google Scholar
  113. Novotny, V., Basset, Y., Miller, S. E., Allison, A., Samuelson, G. A. & Orsak, L. J. 1997. The diversity of tropical insect herbivores: an approach to collaborative international research in Papua New Guinea. Pp. 112–125. In: Lee, B. H., Choe, J. C. & Han, H. Y. (eds.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Taxonomy and Biodiversity Conservation in the East Asia. Korean Institute for Biodiversity Research of Chonbuk National University, Chonju.Google Scholar
  114. Noyes, J. S. 1989. The diversity of Hymenoptera in the tropics with special reference to Parasitica in Sulawesi. Ecol. Entomol. 14: 197–207.Google Scholar
  115. Ødegaard, F. 1999. Host specificity as a parameter in estimates of arthropod species richness. PhD thesis, Norvegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim.Google Scholar
  116. Palacios-Vargas, J. G., Castaño Meneses, G. & Gó mez-Anaya, J. A. 1998. Collembola from the canopy of a Mexican tropical deciduous forest. Pan-Pac. Ent. 74: 47–54.Google Scholar
  117. Paoletti, M. G., Taylor, R. A. J., Stinner, B. R., Stinner, D. H., & Benzing, D. H. 1991. Diversity of soil fauna in the canopy and forest floor of a Venezuelan cloud forest. J. Trop. Ecol. 7: 373–383.Google Scholar
  118. Penny, A. D. & Arias, J. R. 1982. Insects of an Amazon forest. New York, Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  119. Rees, C. J. C. 1983. Microclimate and the flying Hemiptera fauna of a primary lowland rain forest in Sulawesi. Pp. 121–138. In: Sutton, S. L. Whitmore, T. C. & Chadwick, A. C. (eds.), Tropical rain forest: ecology and management. Oxford, Blackwell.Google Scholar
  120. Riede, K. 1997. Bioacoustic monitoring of insect communities in a Bornean rain-forest canopy. Pp. 442–452. In: Stork, N. E., Adis, J. & Didham, R. K. (eds.), Canopy arthropods. Chapman & Hall, London.Google Scholar
  121. Roberts, H. R. 1973. Arboreal Orthoptera in the rain forests of Costa Rica collected with insecticide: a report on the grasshoppers (Acrididae), including new species. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. 125: 46–66.Google Scholar
  122. Rodgers, D. J. & Kiching, R. L. 1998. Vertical stratification of rain forest collembolan (Collembola: Insecta) assemblages: description of ecological patterns and hypotheses concerning their generation. Ecography 21: 392–400.Google Scholar
  123. Roubik, D. W. 1993. Tropical pollinators in the canopy and understory: field data and theory for stratum 'preferences'. J. Ins. Behav. 6: 659–673.Google Scholar
  124. Russell-Smith, A. & Stork, N. E. 1994. Abundance and diversity of spiders from the canopy of tropical rain forests with particular reference to Sulawesi, Indonesia. J. Trop. Ecol. 10: 545–558.Google Scholar
  125. Russell-Smith, A. & Stork, N. E. 1995. Composition of spider communities in the canopies of rain forest trees in Borneo. J. Trop. Ecol. 11: 223–235.Google Scholar
  126. Schowalter, T. D. 1994. Invertebrate community structure and herbivory in a tropical rain forest canopy in Puerto Rico following hurricane Hugo. Biotropica 26: 312–319.Google Scholar
  127. Shmida, A. & Wilson, M. V. 1985. Biological determinants of species diversity. J. Biogeogr. 12: 1–20.Google Scholar
  128. Smythe, N. 1982. The seasonal abundance of night-flying insects in a Neotropical forest. Pp. 309–318. In: Leigh, E. G. Jr., Rand, A. S. & Windsor, D. M. (eds.), The ecology of a tropical forest: seasonal rhythms and long-term changes. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington.Google Scholar
  129. Stoner, K. E. 1996. Prevalence and intensity of intestinal parasites in mantled howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata) in northeastern Costa Rica: implications for conservation biology. Cons. Biol. 10: 539–546.Google Scholar
  130. Stork, N. E. 1988. Insect diversity: facts, fiction and speculation. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 35: 321–337.Google Scholar
  131. Stork, N. E. 1991. The composition of the arthropod fauna of Bornean lowland rain forest trees. J. Trop. Ecol. 7: 161–180.Google Scholar
  132. Stork, N. E. 1994. Inventories of biodiversity: more than a question of numbers. Pp. 81–100. In: Forey, P. I., Humphries, C. J. & Vane-Wright, R. I. (eds.), Systematics and conservation evaluation. Clarendon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  133. Stork, N. E. 1996. Tropical forest dynamics: the faunal components. Pp. 1–20. In: Edwards, D. S., Booth, W. E. & Choy, S. C. (eds.), Tropical rain forest research-current issues. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  134. Stork, N. E., Adis, J. & Didham, R. K. 1997. Canopy arthropods. Chapman & Hall, London.Google Scholar
  135. Stork, N. E. & Brendell, M. J. D. 1990. Variation in the insect fauna of Sulawesi trees with season, altitude and forest type. Pp. 173–190. In: Knight, W. J. & Holloway, J. D. (eds.), Insects and the rain forests of South East Asia (Wallacea). The Royal Entomological Society of London, London.Google Scholar
  136. Stork, N. E. & Brendell, M. J. D. 1993. Arthropod abundance in lowland rain forest of Seram. Pp. 115–130. In: Edwards, I. D., MacDonald, A. A. & Proctor, J. (eds.), Natural History of Seram, Maluku, Indonesia. Intercept, Andover.Google Scholar
  137. Stuntz, S., Simon, U. & Zotz, G. 1999. Assessing potential influence of vascular epiphytes on arthropod diversity in tropical tree crowns: hypotheses, approaches, and preliminary data. Selbyana 20: 276–283.Google Scholar
  138. Sutton, S. L. 2001. Alice grows up: canopy science in transition from Wonderland to reality. Plant Ecol. 153: 13–21 (this volume).Google Scholar
  139. Sutton, S. L. & Hudson, P. J. 1980. The vertical distribution of small flying insects in the lowland rain forest Zaire. Zool. J. Linnol. Soc. 68: 111–123.Google Scholar
  140. Sutton, S. L., Ash, C. P. & Grundy, A. 1983a. The vertical distribution of flying insects in the lowland rain forest of Panama, Papua New Guinea and Brunei. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 78: 287–297.Google Scholar
  141. Sutton, S. L., Whitmore, T. C. & Chadwick, A. C. 1983b. Tropical rain forest: ecology and management. Oxford, Blackwell.Google Scholar
  142. Tobin, J. E. 1991. A neotropical rain forest canopy, ant community: some ecological considerations. Pp. 536–538. In: Huxley, C. R. & Cutler, D. F. (eds.), Ant-Plant Interactions. University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  143. Wagner, T. 1997. The beetle fauna of different tree species in forest of Rwanda and East Zaire. Pp. 169–183. In: Stork, N. E., Adis, J. & Didham, R. K. (eds.), Canopy arthropods. Chapman & Hall, London.Google Scholar
  144. Wagner, T. 1998. Influence of tree species and forest type on the chrysomelid community in the canopy of an Ugandan tropical forest. Mus. Reg. Sci. Nat. Torino 1998: 253–269.Google Scholar
  145. Walter, D. E. & Behan-Pelletier, V. 1999. Mites in forest canopies: filling the size distribution shortfall. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 44: 1–19.Google Scholar
  146. Walter, D. E. & O'Dowd, D. J. 1995. Life on the forest phylloplane: hairs, little houses, and myriad mites. Pp. 325–351. In: Lowman, M. D. & Nadkarni, N. M. (eds.), Forest canopies. Academic Press, San Diego.Google Scholar
  147. Walter, D. E., O'Dowd, D. & Barnes, V. 1994. The forgotten arthropods: foliar mites in the forest canopy. Mem. Qld Mus. 36: 221–226.Google Scholar
  148. Walter, D. E., Seeman, O., Rodgers, D. & Kitching, R. L. 1998. Mites in the mist: how unique is a rain forest canopy-knockdown fauna? Aust. J. Ecol. 23: 501–508.Google Scholar
  149. Watanabe, H. & Ruaysoongnern, S. 1989. Estimation of arboreal arthropod density in a dry evergreen forest in Northeastern Thailand. J. Trop. Ecol. 5: 151–158.Google Scholar
  150. Watt, A. D., Stork, N. E., McBeath, C. & Lawson, G. L. 1997. Impact of forest management on insect abundance and damage in a lowland tropical forest in southern Cameroon. J. Appl. Ecol. 34: 985–998.Google Scholar
  151. Wells, S. M., Pyle, R. M. & Collins, N. M. 1983. The IUCN invertebrate red data book. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Gland, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  152. Wilson, E. O. 1987. The arboreal ant fauna of Peruvian Amazon Forests: a first assessment. Biotropica 19: 245–251.Google Scholar
  153. Wolda, H. 1979. Abundance and diversity of Homoptera in the canopy of a tropical forest. Ecol. Entomol. 4: 181–190.Google Scholar
  154. Wolda, H., O'Brien, C.W.& Stockwell, H. P. 1998.Weevil diversity and seasonality in tropical Panama as deduced from light-trap catches (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea). Smiths. Contr. Zool. 590: 1–79.Google Scholar
  155. Wright, J. S. 1995. The canopy crane. p. 15. In: Lowman, M. D. & Nadkarni, N. M. (eds.), Forest canopies. Academic Press, San Diego.Google Scholar
  156. Wunderle, I. 1992. Die Baum-und Bodenbewohnenden Oribatiden (Acari) im Tief-landregenwald von Panguana, Peru. Amazonia 12: 119–142.Google Scholar
  157. Young, A. M. 1986. Occurrence of Diptera on tree-trunk mosses in a Costa Rican tropical rain forest. Pan-Pac. Ent. 62: 203–208.Google Scholar
  158. Zug, G. R. & Zug, P. B. 1979. The marine toad, Bufo marinus: A natural history resumé of native populations. Smiths. Contr. Zool. 284: 1–58.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yves Basset
    • 1
  1. 1.Smithsonian Tropical Research InstituteAnconPanama

Personalised recommendations