Microbiology

, Volume 71, Issue 2, pp 158–163 | Cite as

Effect of the Medium Composition and Cultivation Conditions on Sporulation in Chemolithotrophic Bacteria

  • T. I. Bogdanova
  • A. L. Mulyukin
  • I. A. Tsaplina
  • G. I. El'-Registan
  • G. I. Karavaiko
Article

Abstract

The possibility of regulating endospore formation by changing cultivation conditions was for the first time shown in acidophilic chemolithotrophic bacteria Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans type strain 1269 and the thermotolerant strain K1 formerly described as “S. thermosulfidooxidans subsp. thermotolerans”. Suppression of sporulation occurred when these strains were cultured in Manning's liquid medium with yeast extract. This medium was optimized by gradually reducing the concentrations of ferrous iron salts (the source of energy), phosphorous, nitrogen, and yeast extract and simultaneously increasing the concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and manganese (the elements important for sporogenesis) to attain higher yields of endospores by strains 1269 and K1. As a result, a new medium A was proposed, in which, under aeration, the life cycle of the strains studied culminated in sporulation at a level of 45 and 60%, respectively, of the total cell number. In a series of additional tests, the growth temperature and medium pH were adjusted to obtain the maximum yield of endospores. The optimal ranges found were 40–50°C and pH 1.8–2.2 for strain 1269 and 35–40°C and pH 2.5–2.7 for strain K1. An even higher yield of endospores, amounting to 55 and 75% for strains 1269 and K1, respectively, was obtained when the above growth conditions were combined (growth on medium A at optimal temperatures and pH under static conditions). Our results suggest a new approach to optimizing sporulation by acidophilic chemolithotrophs, which consists in limiting the energy and nutrient sources and using temperature and pH values within the tolerance bounds of these cultures but outside their growth optimum ranges.

chemolithotrophs Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans medium optimization sporulation 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. 1.
    Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology. Ninth Edition,Holt, J.G. et al., Eds, Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1994. Translated under the title Opredelitel’ bakterii Berdzhi), Moscow: Mir, 1997.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Golovacheva, R.S. and Karavaiko, G.I., Sulfobacillus, a New Genus of Thermophilic Spore-Forming Bacteria, Mikrobiologiya, 1978, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 815-822.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kovalenko, E.V. and Malakhova, P.T., Spore-Forming Iron-Oxidizing Bacterium Sulfobacillus thermosulfi-dooxidans, Mikrobiologiya, 1983, vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 962-966.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Norris, P.R., Clark, D.A., Owen, J.P., and Waterhouse, S., Characteristics of Sulfobacillus acidophilussp. nov. and Other Moderately Thermophilic Mineral-Sulfide-Oxidizing Bacteria, Microbiology, 1996, vol. 142, pp. 775-783.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dufresne, S., Bousquet, J., Boissinot, M., and Guay, R., Sulfobacillus disulfidooxidanssp. nov.-a New Acidophilic Disulfide-Oxidizing, Gram-Positive, Spore-Forming Bacterium, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1996, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 1056-1064.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Vinter, V., Chaloupka, J., and Stastina, J., Caslavska, J., Possibilities of Cellular Differentiation into Different Hypometabolic Forms, Spores V, Halvorson, H.O. et al., Eds., Washington DC: Am. Soc. Microbiol., 1972, pp. 390-397.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mulyukin, A.L., Lusta, K.A., Gryaznova, M.N., Kozlova, A.N., Duzha, M.V., Duda, V.I., and El’-Registan, G.I., Formation of Resting Cells by Bacillus cereusand Micrococcus luteus, Mikrobiologiya,1996, vol. 65, no. 6, pp. 782-789.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bogdanova, T.I., Tsaplina, I.A., Sayakin, D.D., Karavaiko, G.I., and Kovalenko, E.V., Morphology and Cytology of the Bacterium Sulfobacillus thermosulfi-dooxidanssubsp. thermotolerans, Mikrobiologiya, 1990, vol. 59, no. 5, pp. 844-855.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Manning, H.L., New Medium for Isolating Iron-Oxidizing and Heterotrophic Acidophilic Bacteria from Acid Mine Drainage, Appl. Microbiol.,1975, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 1010-1015.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Loginova, L.G., Khraptsova, G.I., Egorova, L.A., and Bogdanova, T.I., The Acidophilic Obligately Thermophilic Bacteria Bacillus acidocaldariusIsolated form Hot Springs and Soil of the Kunashir Island, Mikrobiologiya, 1978, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 947-952.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wisotzkey, J.D., Jurtshuk, P., Jr., Fox, G.E., Deinhard, G., and Poralla, K., Comparative Sequence Analysis of 16S rRNA (rDNA) of Bacillus acidocaldarius, Bacillus acidoterrestris, and Bacillus cycloheptanicusand Proposal for Creation of a New Genus Alicyclobacillusgen. nov, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1992, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 263-269.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Karavaiko, G.I., Tourova, T.P., Tsaplina, I.A., and Bogdanova, T.I., Investigation of the Phylogenetic Position of Aerobic, Moderately Thermophilic Bacteria Oxidizing Fe2+, S0, and Sulfide Minerals and Affiliated the Genus Sulfobacillus, Mikrobiologiya, 2000, vol. 69, no. 6, pp. 857-860.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Karavaiko, G.I., Krasil’nikova, E.N., Tsaplina, I.A., Bogdanova, T.I., and Zakharchuk, L.M., Growth and Carbohydrate Metabolism of Sulfobacilli, Mikrobiologiya, 2001, vol. 70, no. 3, pp. 293-299.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kuznetsov, V.D., Parallelism in Hereditary Variability and the Populational Concept of Species in Prokaryotes, Zh. Obshch. Biol., 1987, vol. XLVIII, no. 4, pp. 466-477.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    El’-Registan, G.I., The Role of Membranotropic Autoregulatory Factors in the Processes of Microbial Growth and Differentiation, Doctoral (Biol.) Dissertation,Moscow, 1988.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kerravalla, L.I., Srinivasan, V.R., and Halvorson, H.O., Endogenous Factor in Sporogenesis in Bacteria, J. Bacteriol., 1964, vol. 88, pp. 374-380.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    El’-Registan, G.I., Duda, V.I., Kozlova, A.N., Mityushina, L.L., and Poplaukhina, O.G., Changes in the Anabolism and Ultrastructural Organization of Bacillus cereusCells under the Effect of a Specific Autoregulatory Factor, Mikrobiologiya, 1979, vol. 48, pp. 240-244.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Duda, V.I., Pronin, S.V., El';-Registan, G.I., Kaprel'yants, A.S., and Mityushina, L.L., Formation of Resting Refractile Cells by Bacillus cereusunder the Effect of an Autoregulatory Factor, Mikrobiologiya, 1982, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 77-81.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Svetlichnyi, V.A., Romanova, A.K., and El'-Registan, G.I., A Study of the Content of Membrane-Active Autoregulators during Lithoautotrophic Growth of Pseudomonas carboxydoflava, Mikrobiologiya, 1986, vol. 55, pp. 55-59.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mulyukin, A.L., Lusta, K.A., Gryaznova, M.N., Babusenko, E.S., Kozlova, A.N., Duzha, M.V., Mityushina, L.L., Duda, V.I., and El'-Registan, G.I., Formation of Resting Cells in Microbial Suspensions Undergoing Autolysis, Mikrobiologiya, 1997, vol. 66, no. 1, pp. 42-49.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© MAIK “Nauka/Interperiodica” 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. I. Bogdanova
    • 1
  • A. L. Mulyukin
    • 1
  • I. A. Tsaplina
    • 1
  • G. I. El'-Registan
    • 1
  • G. I. Karavaiko
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of MicrobiologyRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations