Journal of Applied Electrochemistry

, Volume 32, Issue 2, pp 193–196 | Cite as

Electrosynthesis of 4,4′-dinitroazobenzene on PbO2 electrodes

  • S. Abaci
  • U. Tamer
  • K. Pekmez
  • A. YildizEmail author


Parameters which affect the electrosynthesis of 4,4′-dinitroazobenzene from p-nitroaniline on platinum and PbO2 electrodes were investigated and optimum conditions were determined. Maximum conversion efficiency for electrosynthesis was 95% with a pure β-PbO2 electrode. It was found that the electrocatalytic activity of a PbO2 electrode depends upon its α/β ratio and its degree of crystallinity. The effects of the added base and water on the conversion efficiency were also elucidated.

α-PbO2 β-PbO2 4,4′-dinitroazobenzene electrooxidation p-nitroaniline 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    I.H. Yeo, Y.S. Lee and D.C. Johnson, Electrochim. Acta 37 (1992) 1811.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    M. Couper, D. Pletcher and F. Walsh, Chem. Rev. 90 (1990) 837.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    R. Ramaswamy, M.S. Venkatachalapathy and H.V.K. Udupa. J. Electrochem. Soc. 110 (1963) 294.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    R. Amadelli, L. Armelao, A.B. Velichenko, N.V. Nikolenko, D.V. Girenko, S.V. Kovalyov and F.I. Danilov, Electrochim. Acta 45 (1999) 713.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    N.B. Tahar and A. Savall, J. Appl. Electrochem. 29 (1999) 277.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    T. Osuga and K. Sugino, J. Electrochem. Soc. 104 (1957) 448.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Y. Aiya, S. Fujii, K. Sugino and K. Shirai, J. Electrochem. Soc. 109 (1962) 419.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    V.H. Dodson, J. Electrochem. Soc. 108 (1961) 406.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    W. Mindt, J. Electrochem. Soc. 116 (1969) 1076.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    S. Abaci, K. Pekmez, T. Hökelek and A. Yildiz, J. Power Sources 88 (2000) 232.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    P. Ruetschi, J. Sklarchuk and R.T. Angstadt, Electrochim. Acta 8 (1963) 333.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    R.T. Morrison and R.N. Boyd, ‘Organic Chemistry’, 5th edn (Allyn and Bacon, MA, 1987), p. 978.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    F. Porta, F. Colonna, F. Arciprete, S. Ban. and F. Coppa, J. Mol. Catal. 113 (1996) 359.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    M. Walter and L. Ramaley, Anal. Chem. 45 (1973) 165.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    M. Sertel, A. Yíldíz and H. Baumgartel, Electrochim. Acta 31 (1986) 1625.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    D. Kordes, Chem. Ing. Tech. 38 (1966) 638.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    N. Munichandraiah, J. App. Chem. 22 (1992) 825.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    S. Wavzonek and T.W. Mc Intyre, J. Electrochem. Soc. 114 (1967) 1025.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    N.E. Bagshaw, R.L. Clarke and B. Halliwell, J. App. Chem. 16 (1966) 180.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Science, Department of ChemistryHacettepe UniversityBeytepe-AnkaraTurkey
  2. 2.Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical ChemistryGazi UniversityEtiler-AnkaraTurkey

Personalised recommendations