Plant Foods for Human Nutrition

, Volume 57, Issue 1, pp 25–40 | Cite as

Flow behavior characteristics of ice cream mix made with buffalo milk and various stabilizers

  • Kuldip S. Minhas
  • Jiwan S. Sidhu
  • Gurmail S. Mudahar
  • A.K. Singh


Ice cream made with buffalo milk, using optimum levels ofvarious stabilizers of plant origin, was evaluated for its flow behaviorcharacteristics, with the objective of producing an acceptable qualityproduct. The minimum variation in the viscosity of mix was observed atthree rates of shear (348.88, 523.33 and 1046.66 S-1) for all icecream mixes. The flow behavior index (n) of all the mixes having optimumlevels of various stabilizers was observed to be less than 1; indicating theirpseudoplastic nature. Consistency coefficient (m) of sodium alginate wasfound to be 1.19; highest among all the stabilizers, followed by gelatin(1.17), karaya (1.08), guar gum (0.75), acacia gum (0.70), ghatti gum(0.36), and the control (0.29). The consistency coefficient (m) signifiesthe apparent viscosity of the pseudoplastic fluid. The viscosity of the mixeshaving various stabilizers (optimum levels) was found to be in descendingorder: Sodium alginate, gelatin, karaya, guar gum, acacia, ghatti andcontrol.

Buffalo milk Flow characteristics Gums Plain ice cream Stabilizers Viscosity 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Anon (1996) Trends in livestock population and milk production in India: Study of spacial and temporal variations. Indian Dairyman 48(4): 35–43.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Caldwell KB, Goff HD, Stanley DW (1992) A low-temperature scanning electron microscopy study of ice cream. II. Influence of selected ingredients and processes. Food Str 11: 11–23.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rother J (1995) Gelatin in dairy and sweet products. Food Technol Eur 2: 60–66.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hagiwara T, Hartel RW (1996) The effect of sweetener, stabilizer, and storage temperature on ice recrystallization in ice cream. J Dairy Sci 79: 735–744.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Anon (1991) Factors affecting over-run in ice cream. Confect Manuf Mktg 28(9): 76–83.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Stanley DW, Goff HD, Smith AK (1996) Texture-structure relationships in foamed dairy emulsions. Food Res Intl 29: 1–13.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Goff HD, Freslon B, Sahagian ME, Hauber TD, Stone AP, Stanley DW (1995) Structural development in ice cream-dynamic rheological measurements. J Text Stud 26: 517–536.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dziesak JD (1991) A focus on gums. Food Technol 45: 116–132.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Davidson VJ, Goff HD, Flores A (1996) Flow behavior of viscous, non-Newtonian fluids in holding tubes of HTST pasteurizers. J Food Sci 61: 573–576.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Davidson VJ, Goff HD, Flores A (1995) Flow characteristics of viscous dairy fluids in HTST holding tubes. J Dairy Sci 78(S1): 105–108.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Goff HD, Davidson VJ (1992) Flow characteristics and holding time calculations of ice cream mixes in HTST holding tubes. J Food Prot 55: 34–37.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Minhas KS, Sidhu JS, Mudahar GS (1997) Effect of different stabilizers on the sensory quality of plain ice cream made from buffalo milk. Adv Food Sci 19(3/4): 104–110.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Meiselman HL (1978) Scales for measuring food preferences. In: Peterson MS, Johnson AH (eds), Encyclopedia of Food Science. Westport, CT: AVI, pp 675–678.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Snedecor GW, Cochran WG (1967) Statistical Methods, 6th edn. Calcutta, India: Oxford and IBH Publishing Co.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Duncan DB (1955) Multiple range and multiple F-test. Biometrics 11: 1–42.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Usacheva VA, Tverdokhleb GV (1976) Effect of technology of processing on the viscosity of ice cream mixes. Pishchevaya Promyshlennost' 1: 40–42.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kuldip S. Minhas
    • 1
  • Jiwan S. Sidhu
    • 1
  • Gurmail S. Mudahar
    • 2
  • A.K. Singh
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Food Science and TechnologyIndia
  2. 2.Research & DevelopmentSalad Time Farms, IncSalinasUSA
  3. 3.Department of Process Engineering & Storage StructuresPunjab Agricultural UniversityLudhiana-India

Personalised recommendations