Remediation of Lead Contaminated Soils by Stabilization/Solidification
- 1.5k Downloads
Most available remediation technologies for treatment of heavymetal contaminated soils are very expensive and result in residues requiring further treatment. Stabilization/solidification (immobilization) techniques however, which aredesigned to decrease leaching potential of heavy metals from soil by addition of chemical additives, provide very cost-effective solutions for heavy metal contaminated soils. Thisstudy investigates the most efficient additive for immobilization of lead. To achieve this goal, several leachingexperiments were conducted for mixtures of different additives(lime, activated carbon, clay, zeolite, sand and cement) withartificially Pb contaminated (spiked) soil samples in accordancewith the Toxicity Characterization Leaching Procedure (TCLP) developed by U.S. EPA. Results showed that among the additivestried, activated carbon, clay, zeolite and sand are not very efficient for Pb immobilization. On the other hand, lime andcement are significantly effective in Pb immobilization with 88% efficiency at 1:21 lime:soil ratio and 99% efficiency at1:15 cement:soil ratio, respectively.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Abdel-Sahab, I., Schwab, A. P., Banks, M. K. and Hetrick, B. A.: 1994, ‘Chemical Characterization of Heavy Metal Contaminated Soil in Southeast Kansas’, Water, Air and Soil Pollut. 78, 73–82.Google Scholar
- Bardet, J. P.: 1997, Experimental Soil Mechanics, Prentice Hall Inc., New Jersey U.S.A, pp. 84–85.Google Scholar
- CFR 40: 1990, Code of Federal Regulations 40, Office of the Federal Register National Archives and Records Administration, Ch. 1, Part 261, App. II, pp. 64–77.Google Scholar
- Dermatas, D. and Meng, X.: 1996, ‘Stabilization/Solidification (S/S) of Heavy Metal Contaminated Soils by Means of a Quicklime-Based Treatment Approach’, Stabilization and Solidification of Hazardous, Radioactive, and Mixed Wastes, ASTM STP 1240, American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), Philadelphia, PA, pp. 499–513.Google Scholar
- Dermatas, D.: 1994, ‘Stabilization/Solidification of Lead Contaminated Soils: II. Flow Through Column Leaching’, Restoration and Protection of the Environment II, Patra University Press, Greece, pp. 165–172.Google Scholar
- EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency): 1986, Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste Volume 1A: Laboratory Manual Physical/Chemical Methods, SW 846, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Washington, DC 20460.Google Scholar
- EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency): 1991, Seminar Publication: Site Characterization for Subsurface Remediation, Report No. EPA/625/4-91/026, Cincinnati, Ohio, 45268.Google Scholar
- EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency): 1992, Ground water Issue-Behaviour of Metals in Soil, Report No. EPA/540/S-92/018, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
- Kim, I. S., Choi, Y. S. and Jang, A.: 1997, ‘Remediation of Polluted Soil and Sediment: Perspectives and Failures’, Proceedings of First International Conference on Environmental Restoration, Ljubljan, Slovenia, pp. 83–90.Google Scholar
- La Grega, M. D., Buckingham, P. L. and Evans, J. C.: 1994, Hazardous Waste Management, McGraw-Hill Inc., Singapore.Google Scholar
- Ma, Q. Y., Logan, T. J. and Traina, S. J.: 1995, ‘Lead Immobilization from Aqueous Solutions and Contaminated Soils Using Phosphate Rocks’, Environmental Science and Technology 29, pp. 1118–1126.Google Scholar
- Yukselen, M. A., Alpaslan, B., Calli, B. and Gokyay, O.: 2000, ‘The Effect of Land-Based Sea Pollution in an Old Mining Region: A Case Study from Northern Cyprus’, Paris 2000: 1st World Congress of the International Water Association, Paris, France, July 2000.Google Scholar