Most available remediation technologies for treatment of heavymetal contaminated soils are very expensive and result in residues requiring further treatment. Stabilization/solidification (immobilization) techniques however, which aredesigned to decrease leaching potential of heavy metals from soil by addition of chemical additives, provide very cost-effective solutions for heavy metal contaminated soils. Thisstudy investigates the most efficient additive for immobilization of lead. To achieve this goal, several leachingexperiments were conducted for mixtures of different additives(lime, activated carbon, clay, zeolite, sand and cement) withartificially Pb contaminated (spiked) soil samples in accordancewith the Toxicity Characterization Leaching Procedure (TCLP) developed by U.S. EPA. Results showed that among the additivestried, activated carbon, clay, zeolite and sand are not very efficient for Pb immobilization. On the other hand, lime andcement are significantly effective in Pb immobilization with 88% efficiency at 1:21 lime:soil ratio and 99% efficiency at1:15 cement:soil ratio, respectively.
contaminated soil heavy metals immobilization lead metal leaching soil pollution soil remediation stabilization/solidification TCLP