Advertisement

Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems

, Volume 60, Issue 1–3, pp 115–122 | Cite as

Emission of ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) from a dairy hardstanding in the UK

  • S. Ellis
  • J. Webb
  • T. Misselbrook
  • D. Chadwick
Article

Abstract

Emissions of ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) from uncovered yard areas (hardstandings) of a UK dairy farm were measured between October 1997 and August 1999. Measurements were concentrated after morning milking when the yard had been scraped, and at positions accounting for differences in slurry coverage and manure type. Over two seasons, the mean NH3 emission from a number of season and position categories on the hardstanding were 0.27 g N m−2 h−1 in winter and spring, 0.45 g N m−2 h−1 in summer when the feeding/loafing area was not included, increasing to 1.51 g N m−2 h−1 when this area was included, and 5.0 g N m−2 h−1 for the feeding/loafing area alone. The feeding/loafing area was close to the slurry lagoon where excreta were continuously deposited and not scraped to the slurry lagoon, as was the rest of the hardstanding. A diurnal study of emissions in the summer showed a marked decrease with time after the yard was scraped following the first milking, with emissions increasing again after evening milking when fresh excreta were deposited. Nitrous oxide emissions were more variable than NH3, with an order of magnitude difference between lowest and highest emissions measured at the same time. Mean N2O emission rates were 3.3 μg N m−2 h−1 in winter and spring, 6.5 μg N m−2 h−1 in summer when the feeding/loafing area was not included, increasing to 7.8 μg N m−2 h−1 when this area was included, and 17.9 μg N m−2 h−1 for the feeding/loafing area alone. Large mean methane emissions were measured, 185 mg C m−2 h−1 in winter and spring, decreasing to 57.3 mg C m−2 h−1 in summer when the feeding/loafing area was not included, increasing to 72.9 mg C m−2 h−1 when this area was included, and 151.2 mg C m−2 h−1 for the feeding/loafing area alone. Therefore in summer, emissions measured directly from a dung pat [0–5 cm] that had not been scraped from the loafing area were much greater than from scraped hardstanding areas, but in winter there were still significant emissions from the remaining slurry post-scraping. The experimental design was not sufficient to elucidate the physico-chemical variables controlling the measured emissions, but the data were put into context by estimating the annual emission of these pollutant gases from this one dairy farm. These were estimated at 0.43 t NH3-N y−1, 0.3 kg N2O-N y−1 and 1.0 kg CH4-C y−1. Therefore, uncovered farmyard areas that regularly have excreta deposited on them are significant but previously unaccounted for sources of NH3 loss, less so for N2O and CH4, and require further study to assess the significance of these emission sources within the UK and worldwide.

concrete hardstandings gaseous emissions 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alpkem technical note A303–S020–23 (1978) Measurement of NH4 +-N content of water samplesGoogle Scholar
  2. Anon (1996) Inventory of ammonia emission from UK agriculture. MAFF Report Project WA0630, London UK, pp 25Google Scholar
  3. Braam CR, Ketelaars JJMH & Smits MCJ (1997) Effects of floor design and floor cleaning on ammonia emissions from cubicle houses for dairy cows. Netherlands J Agric Sci 45: 49–64Google Scholar
  4. Chadwick DR, Sneath RW, Phillips VR & Pain BF (1998) A UK inventory of nitrous oxide emissions from farmed livestock. Atmospheric Environment 33: 3345–3354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Lockyer DR & Whitehead D (1990) Volatilisation of ammonia from cattle urine applied to grassland. Soil Biol Biochem 22: 1137–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Misselbrook TH, Pain BF & Headon DM (1998) Estimates of ammonia emission from dairy cow collecting yards. J. Agric Eng Res 71: 127–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Oenema O, Velthof GL, Yamulki S & Jarvis SC (1997) Nitrous oxide emissions from grazed grassland. Soil Use Manage 13: 288–295Google Scholar
  8. Sneath RW, Phillips VR, Demmers TGM, Burgess LR, Short JL & Welch SK (1997) Long term measurements of greenhouse gas emissions from UK livestock buildings. In: Livestock Environment V.Vol. I. Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium, Minnesota, May 29–31, pp 146–153Google Scholar
  9. Svensson L & Ferm M (1993) Mass transfer coefficient and equilibrium concentration as key factors in a new approach to estimate ammonia emission from livestock manure. J Agric Eng Res 56: 1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Svensson L (1994) A new dynamic chamber technique for measuring ammonia emissions from land-spread manure and fertilisers. Acta Agriculture Scandinavia, Section B, Soil and Plant Science 44: 35–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Svensson L (1998) A new micrometeorological method for measuring ammonia emissions. In: Matsunaka, T (ed) Environmentally friendly management of farm animal wastes, pp 91–94 JapanGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Ellis
    • 1
  • J. Webb
    • 2
  • T. Misselbrook
    • 3
  • D. Chadwick
    • 3
  1. 1.ADAS,-BoxworthCambridgeUK
  2. 2.ADAS,-WolverhamptonWolverhamptonUK
  3. 3.IGER, North Wyke, OkehamptonDevonUK

Personalised recommendations