, Volume 2, Issue 2, pp 119–125 | Cite as

Let the Cells Speak: Neutrophils as Biologic Markers of the Inflammatory Response

  • Alexander D. Romaschin
  • Debra M. Foster
  • Paul M. Walker
  • John C. Marshall


Public Health Inflammatory Response Emergency Medicine Biologic Marker 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Patrick DA, Moore FA, Moore EE, et al. Neutrophil priming and activation in the pathogenesis of post injury multiple organ failure. New Horizons 1996;4:194-210.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Faist E, Schinkel C, Zimmer S. Update on the mechanisms of immune suppression of injury and immune modulation. World J Surg 1996;20:454-459.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bone RC, Grodzin CJ, Balk RA. Sepsis: A new hypothesis for pathogenesis of the disease process. Chest 1997;112:235-243.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Goris RJA, te Boekhorst TPA, Nuytinck JKS, Gimbrere JSF. Multiple organ failure. Generalized autodestructive inflammation? Arch Surg 1985;120:1109-1115.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cavaillon JM. The non-specific nature of endotoxin tolerance. Trends Microbiol 1995;3:320-324.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tschaikowsky K, Sittl R, Braun GG, et al. Increased f Met-Leu-Phe receptor expression and altered superoxide production of neutrophil granulocytes in septic and post traumatic patients. J Clin Invest 1993;72:18-25.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Windsor ACJ, Mullen PG, Fowler AA, et al. Role of the neutrophil in adult respiratory distress syndrome. Br J Surg 1993;80:10-17.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Vedder NB, Winn RK, Rice CL, et al. Neutrophil-mediated vascular injury in shock and multiple organ failure. In: Passmore JC, Reynolds DG, Traber DC, eds. Perspectives in Shock Research: Metabolism, Immunology, Mediators and Models Vol 299. New York: Alan R Liss, Inc., 1988;181-191.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wenisch C, Parschalk P, Hasenhundl M, et al. Polymorphonuclear leukocyte dysregulation in patients with gram-negative septicemia assessed by flow cytometry. Eur J Clin Invest 1995;25:418-424.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Vespasiano MC, Lewandoski JR, Zimmerman JJ. Longitudinal analysis of neutrophil superoxide anion generation in patients with septic shock. Crit Care Med 1993;21:666-672.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Terregino CA, Lubkin C, Thom SR. Impaired neutrophil adherence as an early marker of systemic inflammatory response syndrome and severe sepsis. Ann Emerg Med 1997;29:400-403.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Marshall JC, Watson RWG. Apoptosis in the resolution of systemic inflammation. In: Vincent JL, ed. Yearbook of Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1997;100-108.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Reinhart K, Wiegand-Löhnert C, Grimminger F, Kaul M, Withington S, Treacher D, Eckart J, Willatts S, Bouza C, Krausch D, Stockenhuber F, Eiselstein J, Daum L, Kempeni J. Assessment of the safety and efficacy of the monoclonal anti-tumor necrosis factor antibody-fragment, MAK 195F, in patients with sepsis and septic shock: A multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study. Crit Care Med 1996;24:733-742.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Reinhart K. A new marker of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome: Procalcitonin (PCT). Sepsis 1998; this issue.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Roumen RMH, Redl H, Schlag G, Zilow G, Sandtner W, Koller W, Hendriks T, Goris RJA. Inflammatory mediators in relation to the development of multiple organ failure in patients after severe blunt trauma. Crit Care Med 1995;23:474-480.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pinsky MR, Vincent JL, Deviere J, et al. Serum cytokine levels in human septic shock: Relation to multiple-system organ failure and mortality. Chest 1993;103:565-575.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bone RC, Balk, RA, Cerra FB, Dellinger RP, Fein AM, Knaus WA, Schein RMH, Sibbald WJ. ACCP-SCCM Consensus Conference: Definitions of sepsis and organ failure and guidelines for the use of innovative therapies in sepsis. Chest 1992;101:1644-1655.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pizzo PA. Management of fever in patients with cancer and treatment induced neutropenia. N Engl J Med 1993;328:1323-1332.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Marshall JC, Sweeney D. Microbial infection and the septic response in critical surgical illness: Sepsis, not infection, determines outcome. Arch Surg 1990;123:1465-1469.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chang R, Wong GY. Prognostic significance of marked leukocytosis in hospitalized patients. J Gen Intern Med 1991;6:199-203.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Chalasani N, Patel K, Clark WS, Wilcox CM. The prevalence and significance of leukocytosis in upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Am J Med Sci 1998;315:233-236.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Fenwick JC, Cameron M, Naiman SC, Haley LP, Onco JJ, Wiggs BR, Tweeddale MG. Blood transfusion as a cause of leukocytosis in critically ill patients. Lancet 1994;344:855-856.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Seebach JD, Morant R, Ruegg R, Seifert B, Fehr J. The diagnostic value of the neutrophil left shift in predicting inflammatory and infectious disease. Am J Clin Pathol 1998;109:114-115.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Allen RC, Phagocytic leukocyte oxygenation activities and chemiluminescence: A kinetic approach to analysis. Meth Enzymol 1986;133:449-493.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Allen RC, Stjernholm RL, Steele RH. Evidence for generation of an electronic excitation state(s) in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes and its participation in bactericidal activity. Biochem Biophys Res Comm 1972;47:769-XXX.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Witko-Sarsat V, Nguyen AT, Knight J, Deschamps-Latscha B. Pholasin: A new chemiluminescent probe for the detection of chloramines derived from human phagocytes. Free Radical Biol & Med 1992;13:83-88.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Thornton BP, Vetvicka V, Pitman M et al. Analysis of the sugar specificity and molecular location of the β glucan binding lectin site of complement receptor type 3. J Immunol 1996;156:1235-1246.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Rosenbloom AJ, Levann D, Ray B, et al. Density and avidity changes of CD11b on circulating polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) in systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1996;153:A123.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Stevens DL, Bryant AE, Huffman J, Thompson K, Allen RC. Analysis of circulating phagocyte activity measured by whole blood luminescence: Correlation with clinical status. J Infect Dis 1994;170(6):1463-1472.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lindsay TF, Memari N, Ghanekar A et al. Rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm causes priming of phagocytic oxidative burst. J Vasc Surg 1997;25:599-610.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Greenberg RN, Wilson KM, Kunz AY et al. Observations using antiendotoxin antibody (E5) as adjunctive therapy in humans with suspected, serious, gram-negative sepsis. Crit Care Med 1992;20:30-35.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Greenman RL, Schein RMH, Martin MA, et al. A controlled clinical trial of E5 murine monoclonal IgM antibody to endotoxin in the treatment of Gram negative sepsis. JAMA 1991;266:1097-1102.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bone RC, Balk RA, Fein AM, et al. A second large controlled clinical study of E5, a monoclonal antibody to endotoxin: Results of a prospective, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial. Crit Care Med 1995;23:994-1006.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    McCloskey RV, Straube RC, Sanders C, et al. Treatment of septic shock with human monoclonal antibody HA-1A. Ann Intern Med 1994;121:1-5.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ziegler EJ, Fisher CJ, Sprung CL, et al. Treatment of gram-negative bacteremia and septic shock with HA-1A human monoclonal antibody against endotoxin. N Engl J Med 1991;324:429-436.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wortel CH, von der Mohlen MAM, van Deventer SJH, et al. Effectiveness of a human monoclonal anti-endotoxin antibody (HA-1A) in gram-negative sepsis: Relationship to endotoxin and cytokine levels. J Infect Dis 1992;166:1367-1374.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Executive Summary of an American College of Chest Physicians, National Institute of Allergy and infectious Disease, and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Workshop. From the bench to the bedside: The future of sepsis research. Chest 1997;111:744-753.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Romaschin AD, Walker PM, Harris D, et al. A rapid assay of endotoxin in whole blood using autologous neutrophil dependent chemiluminescence. J Immunol Methods (in press) 1998.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Haslett C. Resolution of acute inflammation and the role of apoptosis in the tissue fate of granulocytes. Clin Sci 1992;83:639-648.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Martin SJ, Green DR. Protease activation during apoptosis: Death by a thousand cuts? Cell 1995;82:349-352.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Savill JS, Wyllie AH, Henson JE, Henson PM, Haslett C. Macrophage phagocytosis of aging neutrophils in inflammation. J Clin Invest 1989;83:865-875.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Liles WC, Kiener PA, Ledbetter JA, Aruffo A, Klebanoff SJ. Differential expression of Fas (CD95) and Fas ligand on normal human phagocytes: Implications for the regulation of apoptosis in neutrophils. J Exp Med 1996;184:429-440.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Watson RWG, Redmond HP, Wang JH, Condron C, Bouchier-Hays D. Neutrophils undergo apoptosis following ingestion of Escherichia coli. J Immunol 1996;156:3986-3992.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Lee A, Whyte MKB, Haslett C. Inhibition of apoptosis and prolongation of neutrophil functional longevity by inflammatory mediators. J Leuk Biol 1993;54:283-288.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Watson RWG, Rotstein OD, Parodo J, Bitar R, Marshall JC. The interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme (caspase-1) inhibits neutrophil apoptosis through processing of interleukin-1. J Immunol 1998; in Press.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Watson RWG, Rotstein OD, Nathens AB, Parodo J, Marshall JC. Neutrophil apoptosis is modulated by endothelial transmigration and adhesion molecule engagement. J Immunol 1997;158:945-953.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Chitnis D, Dickerson C, Munster AM, Winchurch RA. Inhibition of apoptosis in polymorphonuclear neutrophils from burn patients. J Leuk Biol 1996;59:835-839.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Jimenez MF, Watson RWG, Parodo J, Evans D, Foster D, Steinberg M, Rotstein OD, Marshall JC. Dysregulated expression of neutrophil apoptosis in the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Arch Surg 1997;132:1263-1270.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexander D. Romaschin
    • 1
  • Debra M. Foster
    • 1
  • Paul M. Walker
    • 1
  • John C. Marshall
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Clinical BiochemistryThe Toronto Hospital, University of TorontoToronto

Personalised recommendations