Advertisement

Water Resources Management

, Volume 14, Issue 1, pp 59–75 | Cite as

Water Resources in the GCC Countries: An Overview

  • Muhammad F. Al-Rashed
  • Mohsen M. Sherif
Article

Abstract

One of the critical problems that hinders thesustainable development in the Gulf CooperationCouncil (GCC) countries is the lack of renewable waterresources. Rainfall in the Arabian Peninsula is scarceand infrequent. Over-exploitation of fossilgroundwater resources, mostly to meet the irrigationdemands and create greenery lands, has alreadyaffected the aquifer's productivity bothquantitatively and qualitatively. A great portion ofthe freshwater demands in the GCC countries is coveredby desalinated water. Recently, after the Gulf war anduncertainty of oil prices, the expansion in theconstruction of desalination plants may not beeconomically feasible. This article investigates thewater availability and assesses the water demands inthe GCC countries. It emphasizes the need for theadaptation of an efficient and integrated policy forwater utilization and application of relevantconservation techniques in various water consumptionsectors. Water of higher quality should be preservedfor drinking purposes and should not be utilized forother purposes that may tolerate water of lowerquality. Recycling of water and artificial recharge ofgroundwater by surface water and treated wastewatershould be adapted at a larger scale.

assessment demands Gulf Cooperation Council management prediction water resources 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abd Al-Ghafar, A. A.: 1999, Water and Agriculture Challenges in Bahrain, Bahrain, p. 214 (in Arabic).Google Scholar
  2. Abdulrazzak, M.: 1995, Water supplies versus demand in countries of Arabian Peninsula, Water Resour. Plann. Managt. 121, 227–234.Google Scholar
  3. Abdulrazzak, M.: 1994, Review and assessment of water resources in Gulf Cooperation Council Countries, Water Resour. Develop. 10, 23–37.Google Scholar
  4. Abu Rizaiza, S. and Allam, M.: 1989, Water requirements versus water availability in Saudi Arabia, Water Resour. Plann. Managt. 115, 64–74.Google Scholar
  5. Acer J. T. and Ministry of Electricity and Water of Qatar: 1997, Master plan for the development of water supply in Qatar, Final Report, Vol. 1, Qatar.Google Scholar
  6. ACSAD (The Arab Center for the Studies of Arid Zones and Dry Lands): 1997, Water resources in the Arab World and their utilization, Proc. 2nd Arab Workshop on Water Resources in the Arab World, March 8- 10, Kuwait (in Arabic).Google Scholar
  7. Al Alawi, J. and Abdulrazzak, M.: 1994, Water in the Arabian Peninsula: problems and perspectives, Chapter 7, In: Roger, P. and Lydon, P. (eds), Water in the Arab World: Perspectives and Prognoses, Harvard University Press, U.S.A., pp. 171–252.Google Scholar
  8. Al-Hajj, Y. A. M.: 1995, Integrated groundwater resources management in Qatar, Sixth Regional Meeting of the IHP National Committees of the Arab Region, Amman, Jordan.Google Scholar
  9. Al-Mahmoud, M. A.: 1992, Water resources development in Qatar, Proc. 1st Gulf Water Conference, Dubai, United Arab Emirates.Google Scholar
  10. Al-Muzaini, S.M. and Ismail, A. A: 1994, Irrigation water and the national plan for greening Kuwait, WSTA 2nd Gulf Water Conference: Towards an Integrated Water Resources Management, State of Bahrain (in Arabic).Google Scholar
  11. Al-Saati, A. J.: 1995, Domestic wastewater reuse in the GCC, Attaawun Newspaper 10, 33–46.Google Scholar
  12. Al-Sayari, S. S. and Zötl, J. G.: 1978, Quaternary Period in Saudi Arabia, 1: Sedimentological, Hydrogeological, Hydrochemical, Geomorphological and Climatological Investigations in Central and Eastern Saudi Arabia, Springer, New York.Google Scholar
  13. Al-Sulaiti, M. A.: 1999, A new vision to the water resources planning in Qatar, Proc. 4th Gulf Water Conference, State of Bahrain.Google Scholar
  14. Al-Turbak, A.: 1999, Future water supply and demand predictions in Saudi Arabia, Proc. 4th Gulf Water Conference, State of Bahrain.Google Scholar
  15. Al-Zubari, W. K.: 1997, Towards the establishment of a total water cycle management and reuse program in the GCC countries, Proc. 3rd Gulf Water Conference, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman.Google Scholar
  16. Authman, M. N.: 1983, Water and development processes in Saudi Arabia, Tihama Press, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.Google Scholar
  17. BAAC (British Arabian Advisory Company): 1980, Water resources of Saudi Arabia, Vol. 1, Prepared for the Ministry of Agriculture and Water of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh.Google Scholar
  18. Bushnak, A. A.: 1990, Water supply challenge in the Gulf Region, J. Desalination 78, 133–145.Google Scholar
  19. Danish, S., Khater, A. and Al-Ansari, M.: 1992, Options in water reuse in Bahrain, Proc. 1st Gulf Water Conference, Dubai.Google Scholar
  20. Edgell, H. J.: 1987, Geological framework of Saudi Arabia groundwater resources, KAU J. Earth Science 3, 267–285.Google Scholar
  21. El-Nahhas, F., Sherif, M., Szekely, F., Ebrahim, M., Mukhopadhyay, A. and Ghoneim, H.: 1998, Study, design and construction of a pilot groundwater drainage project, WH001, Phase 3: Longterm operation, monitoring and assessment of the drainage system at Shamiyah and Kaifan, second interim report, Vol. 1, KISR 5316, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Kuwait.Google Scholar
  22. El-Zawahry, A. E. and Ibrahim, A. A.: 1992, Management of irrigation water in Oman, Proc. 1st Water Conference, Dubai, United Arab Emirates.Google Scholar
  23. FAO: 1979, Survey and evaluation of available data on shared water resources in the Gulf States and Arabian Peninsula, Three Volumes, FAO, Rome.Google Scholar
  24. Hussain, G. and Al-Saati, A.: 1999, Wastewater quality and its reuse in agriculture in Saudi Arabia, Proc. 4th Gulf Water Conference, State of Bahrain.Google Scholar
  25. De Jong, R. L.: 1989, Water resources of GCC: international aspects, Water Resour. Plann. Managt. 115, 503–510.Google Scholar
  26. Khouri, J. and Deroubi, A.: 1990,Water resources in the Arab World, UNESCO/ACSAD, Damascus, p. 166.Google Scholar
  27. Khouri, J., Agha, W. and Al-Deroubi, A.: 1986, Water resources in the Arab World and future perspectives, Proc. Symposium on Water Resources and Uses in the Arab World, Kuwait.Google Scholar
  28. Lloyd, J. W. and Rim, R. H.: 1990, The hydrogeology of groundwater resources development of the Cambio-Ordovician sandstone aquifers in Saudi Arabia and Jordan, J. Hydrol. 121, 1–20.Google Scholar
  29. MEW: 1998, Statistical Yearbook Water, Ministry of Electricity and Water, State of Kuwait, Kuwait.Google Scholar
  30. MEW: 1995, Statistical Book until 1995, Ministry of Electricity and Water, State of Bahrain.Google Scholar
  31. Ministry of Agriculture andWater (MAW), Saudi Arabia: 1984, Water Atlas of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.Google Scholar
  32. Mukhopadhyay, A., Al-Sulaimi, J., Al-Awadi, E. and Al-Ruwaih, F.: 1996, An overview of the Tertiary geology and hydrogeology of the northern part of the Arabian Gulf region with special reference to Kuwait, Earth Sci. Rev. 40, 259–295.Google Scholar
  33. Sahlawi, M. A.: 1999, Seawater desalination in Saudi Arabia: economic review and demand projections, Proc. 4th Gulf Water Conference, State of Bahrain.Google Scholar
  34. Shiklomanov, I. A.: 1990, The World's Water Resources, International Symposium to commemorate the 25 yr of IHD/IHP, UNESCO, Paris.Google Scholar
  35. Qutib, M. S.: 1998, Water Resources Development Strategies and Future Demand to 2020 for the State of Qatar, Department of Agriculture and Water Research, Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Agriculture and United Nations Development Program, Qatar.Google Scholar
  36. Ukayli, A. and Husain, T.: 1988, Evaluation of surface water availability, wastewater reuse and desalination in Saudi Arabia, Water International 13, 218–225.Google Scholar
  37. Uqba, A. K.: 1992, The need for national and regional integrated water resources management in the Gulf Cooperation Council Region, Proc. 1st Gulf Water Conference, Dubai, United Arab Emirates.Google Scholar
  38. Viswanathan, M. and Al-Otaibi, M.: 1999, Treatment and storage of conventionally treated wastewater in aquifers, Progress Report No. 4, KISR 5627, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Kuwait.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammad F. Al-Rashed
    • 1
  • Mohsen M. Sherif
    • 1
  1. 1.Hydrology Department, Water Resources DivisionKuwait Institute for Scientific ResearchSafatKuwait

Personalised recommendations