, Volume 140, Issue 3, pp 171–176

Identity of Fusarium nygamai isolates with long and short microconidial chains from millet, sorghum and soil in Africa

  • Jeremy A. Klaasen
  • Paul E. Nelson


Several Fusarium species have been found associated with millet and sorghum in Nigeria, Lesotho and Zimbabwe. Amongst these, some isolates were originally identified as short- and long-chained types of F. nygamai. However, there was some question as to the correct identification of the long chained types. This study reclassified some of the isolates with long microconidial chains as F. moniliforme. Morphologically, these strains do not produce chlamydospores like F. nygamai, but produce swollen hyphal cells or resistant hyphae. The isolates in this study were crossed with the mating-type tester strains of Gibberella fujikuroi (F. moniliforme and G. nygamai (F. nygamai). Of the isolates with long chains of microconidia and other characteristics of F. moniliforme, 36% crossed with mating population ''A'' of G. fujikuroi. Of the isolates with characteristics of F. nygamai, 65% crossed with the testers used to produce the teleomorph of F. nygamai. Mating tests support the separation of the sample population into F. moniliforme and F. nygamai. The results of this study show that genetics can be an aid in resolving some problems in fungal taxonomy.

Africa Fusarium F. moniliforme grain Lesotho mating population Nigeria taxonomy Zimbabwe 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Burgess LW, Trimboli D. Characterization of Fusarium nygamai, sp. nov. Mycologia 1986; 78: 223–229.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Desjardins AE, Plattner RD, Shackelford DD, Leslie JE, Nelson PE. Heritability of fumonisin B1 production in Gibberella fujikuroi population A. Appl Environ Microbiol 1992; 58: 2799–2805.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Fisher NL, Burgess LW, Toussoun TA, Nelson PE. Carnation leaves as a substrate and for preserving cultures of Fusarium species. Phytopathology 1982; 72: 151–153.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hansen EM. Speciation in plant pathogenic fungi: the in-fluence of agricultural practice. Can J Plant Pathol 1987; 9: 403–410.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hsieh WH, Smith SN, Snyder WC. Mating groups in Fusarium moniliforme. Phytopathology 1977; 67: 1041–1043.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Klaasen JA, Nelson PE. The identification of a mating population within the Fusarium nygamai anamorph. VII International Fusarium Workshop, The Pennsylvania State University University, Park, PA, p. 59.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Klaasen JA, Nelson PE. Identification of a mating population, Gibberella nygamai sp. nov., within the Fusarium nygamai anamorph. Mycologia 1996; 88: 965–969.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Klittich CJR, Leslie JF. Nitrate reduction mutants of Fusarium moniliforme (Gibberella fujikuroi). Genetics 1988; 118: 417–423.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Klittich CJR, Leslie JF. Identification of a second mating population within Gibberella fujikuroi (Fusarium moniliforme). Mycologia 1992; 84: 541–547.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Klotz LV, Nelson PE, Toussoun TA. A medium for enhancement of chlamydospore formation in Fusarium species. Mycologia 1988; 80: 108–109.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kuhlman EG. Varieties of Gibberella with anamorphs in section Liseola. Mycologia 1982; 74: 759–768.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lamprecht SC, Marasas WFO, Rheeder JP, Schreuder W. Two Fusarium taxa associated with sorghum in South Africa. VII International Fusarium Workshop. The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, 1993. p. 54.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Leslie JF. Mating populations in Gibberella fujikuroi (Fusarium section Liseola). Phytopathology 1991; 81: 1058–1060.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Leslie JF. Introductory biology of Fusarium moniliforme. In: Jackson LS, DeVries JW, Bullerman LB, eds. Fumonisins in Food. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 392. New York: Plenum Press, 1996: 153–164.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Leslie JF, Pearson CAS, Nelson PB, Toussoun TA. Fusarium spp. from corn, sorghum and soybean fields in the central and eastern United States. Phytopathology 1990; 80: 343–350.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Leslie JF, Marasas WFO, Shephard GS, Sydenham EW, Stockenström S, Thiel PG. Duckling toxicity and the production of fumonisin and moniliformin by isolates in the A and F mating populations of Gibberella fujikuroi (Fusarium moniliforme). Appl Environ Microbiol 1996; 62: 1182–1187.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Marasas WFO, Rabie CJ, Lübben AL, Nelson PE, Toussoun TA, Van Wyk PS. Fusarium nygamai from millet in southern Africa. Mycologia 1988; 80: 263–266.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Neergaard, P. Seed Pathology. New York: Haisted Press. (vol. 1) 1997.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Nelson PE, Plattner RD, Shackelford DD, Desjardins AE. Fumonisin B1 production by Fusarium species other than Fusarium moniliforme in section Liseola and by some related species. Appl Environ Microbiol 1992; 58: 984–989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nelson PE, Toussoun TA, Marasas WFO. Fusarium species: An Illustrated Manual for Identification. University Park: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1983.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Nyvall RF, Kommedahl T. Individual thickened hyphae as survival structures of Fusarium moniliforme in corn. Phytopathology 1968; 58: 1704–1707.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Odo PE. Evaluation of short and tall sorghum varieties in mixtures with cowpea in the Sudan savanna of Nigeria: land equivalent ratio, grain yield and system productivity index. Exp Agric 1991; 27: 435–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Onyike NBN, Nelson PB, Marasas WFO. Fusarium species associated with millet grain from Nigeria, Lesotho and Zimbabwe. Mycologia 1991; 83: 708–712.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Onyike NBN, Nelson PE. Fusarium species associated with sorghum grain from Nigeria, Lesotho and Zimbabwe. Mycologia 1992; 84: 52–458.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Onyike NBN, Nelson PE. The distribution of Fusarium species in soils planted to millet and sorghum in Lesotho, Nigeria and Zimbabwe. Mycopathologia 1993; 121: 105–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Plucknett DL, Smith NH, Williams JT, Murthi Anishetty N. Crop germplasm conservation and developing countries. Science 1983; 220: 163–169.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ross PF, Rice LG, Osweiler LG, Nelson PE, Richard JL, Wilson TM. A review and update of animal toxicoses associated with fumonisin-contaminated feeds and production of fumonisin by Fusarium isolates. Mycopathologia 1992; 117: 109–114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Thiel PG, Marasas WFO, Sydenham EW, Shephard GS, Gelderblom WCA, Nieuwenhuis JJ. Survey of fumonisin production of Fusarium species. Appl Environ Microbiol 1991; 57: 1089–1093.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Thiel PG, Marasas WFO, Sydenham EW, Shephard GS, Gelderblom WCA. Implications of naturally occurring levels of fumonisins in corn for human and animal health. Mycopathologia 1992; 117: 3–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeremy A. Klaasen
    • 1
  • Paul E. Nelson
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of MicrobiologyUniversity of the Western CapeBellvilleSouth Africa
  2. 2.Fusarium Research Center, Department of Plant PathologyThe Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA

Personalised recommendations