Agroforestry Systems

, Volume 46, Issue 2, pp 161–180 | Cite as

A general classification of agroforestry practice

  • Fergus L. Sinclair

Abstract

Present classification schemes confuse agroforestry practices, where trees are intimately associated with agricultural components at a field scale, with the whole farm and forest systems of which they form a part. In fact, it is common for farming systems to involve the integration of several reasonably discrete agroforestry practices, on different types of land. The purpose of a general classification is to identify different types of agroforestry and to group those that are similar, thereby facilitating communication and the organized storage of information. A new scheme is proposed that uses the ‘practice’ rather than the ‘system’ as the unit of classification. This allows an efficient grouping of practices that have a similar underlying ecology and prospects for management. A two stage definition of agroforestry is proposed that distinguishes an interdisciplinary approach to land use from a set of integrated land use practices. Four levels of organization are recognized through analysis of the role of trees in agricultural landscapes: the land use system, categories of land use within systems, discrete groups of components (trees, crops, animals) managed together, and functionally connected groups of such discrete practices in time and space. Precedents for this form of analysis are found in the literature and it conforms with generally accepted methods of systems analysis. Classification of major types of agroforestry practice proceeds primarily according to the components involved and the predominant usage of land. A secondary scheme further classifies these in terms of the arrangement, density and diversity of the tree components involved.

definition description ecology landscape analysis systems analysis 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Amatya SM (1996) Prevailing agroforestry systems and practices in Nepal. In: Asia-Pacific Agroforestry Profiles, Nepal, pp 11-16Google Scholar
  2. Anderson LS and Sinclair FL (1993) Ecological interactions in agroforestry systems. For Abst 54: 489-523 and Agrofor Abst 6(2): 57–91Google Scholar
  3. Beaton A (1987) Poplars and agroforestry. Quart J For 81: 225-233Google Scholar
  4. Beer J (1987) Advantages, disadvantages and desirable characteristics of shade trees for coffee, cacao and tea. Agrofor Syst 5: 3-14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Breman H and Kessler J-J (1995) Woody Plants in Agroecosystems of Semi-arid Regions. Advanced series in agricultural sciences 23. Springer, Berlin, 335 ppGoogle Scholar
  6. Brunig EF and Sander N (1983) Ecosystem structure and functioning: some interactions of relevance to agroforestry. In: Huxley PA (ed) Plant Research and Agroforestry, pp 221-247. ICRAF, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  7. Carter AS and Gilmour DA (1989) Increase in tree cover on private farm land in central Nepal. Mountain Research and Development 9: 381-391Google Scholar
  8. Chidumayo EN (1987) A shifting cultivation land use system under population pressure in Zambia. Agrofor Syst 5: 15-26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Conway GR (1987) The properties of agroecosystems. Agric Syst 24: 95-117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. de Foresta H and Michon G (1996) Tree improvement research for agroforestry: a note of caution. Agroforestry Forum 7(4): 8-10Google Scholar
  11. Duckham AN and Masefield GB (1970) Farming Systems of the World. Chatto and Windus, LondonGoogle Scholar
  12. Fonzen PF and Oberholzer E (1984) Use of multipurpose trees in hill farming systems in western Nepal. Agrofor Syst 2: 187-197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Garrett HE, Kurtz WB, Buck LE, Hardesty LH, Gold MA, Pearson HA, Lassoie JP and Slusher JP (1994) Agroforestry: an Integrated Land-use Management System for Production and Farmland Conservation. Association for Temperate Agroforestry, Lexington KY, 58 ppGoogle Scholar
  14. Gordon AM, Newman SM and Williams PA (1997) Temperate agroforestry: an overview. In: Gordon AM and Newman SM (eds) Temperate Agroforestry Systems, pp 1-8. CAB International, Wallingford, UKGoogle Scholar
  15. Gouyon A, de Foresta H and Levang P (1993) Does ‘jungle rubber’ deserve its name? An analysis of rubber agroforestry systems in southeast Sumatra. Agrofor Syst 22: 181-206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Grigg DB (1974) The Agricultural Systems of the World: An Evolutionary Approach. Cambridge University Press, 358 ppGoogle Scholar
  17. Hilderbrand PE (1990) Farming systems research — extension. In: Jones JGW and Street PR (eds) Systems Theory applied to Agriculture and the Food Chain, pp 131-143. Elsevier Science Publishing Co Inc, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  18. Jeffers JNR (1978) An Introduction to Systems Analysis: with Ecological Applications. Edward Arnold (Publishers) Ltd, London, 198 ppGoogle Scholar
  19. Jones JGW and Street PR (1990) Systems Theory applied to Agriculture and the Food Chain. Elsevier Science Publishing Co Inc, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  20. Knowles RL (1991) New Zealand experience with silvopastoral systems: a review. For Ecol Manage 45: 251-268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lowe RG (1987) Development of taungya in Nigeria. In: Gholz HL (ed) Agroforestry: Realities, Possibilities and Potentials, pp 137-154. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrecht, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  22. Leakey RRB (1996) Definition of agroforestry revisited. Agroforestry Today 8(1): 5-7Google Scholar
  23. Lundgren BO and Raintree JB (1982) Sustained agroforestry. In: Nestel B (ed) Agricultural Research for Development: Potentials and Challenges in Asia, pp 37-49. ISNAR, The HagueGoogle Scholar
  24. Marten GG (1988) Productivity, stability, sustainability, equitability and autonomy as properties of agroecosystem assessment. Agric Syst 26: 291-316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. McKnight GM (1996) Controlled grazing in woodlands: benefits for conservation and farmers. Agroforestry Forum 7(3): 10-13Google Scholar
  26. Merwin ML (ed) (1997) The Status, Opportunities and Needs for Agroforestry in the United States. A National Report. Association for Temperate Agroforestry, Lexington KY, 41 ppGoogle Scholar
  27. Nair PKR (1983) Agroforestry with coconuts and other tropical plantation crops. In: Huxley PA (ed) Plant Research and Agroforestry, pp 79-102. ICRAF, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  28. Nair PKR (1985) Classification of agroforestry systems. Agrofor Syst 3: 97-128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Nair PKR (1987) Agroforestry Systems Inventory. Agrofor Syst 5: 301-317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Nair PKR (1989a) ICRAF's Agroforestry Systems Inventory project. In: Nair PKR (ed) Agroforestry Systems in theTropics, pp 21-38. Kluwer Academic Publishers, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  31. Nair PKR (1989b) Classification of agroforestry systems. In: Nair PKR (ed) Agroforestry Systems in theTropics, pp 39-52. Kluwer Academic Publishers, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  32. Nair PKR (1989c) Agroforestry systems, practices and technologies. In: Nair PKR (ed) Agroforestry Systems in theTropics, pp 53-62. Kluwer Academic Publishers, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  33. Nair PKR (1990) Classification of agroforestry systems. In: MacDicken KG and Vergara NT (eds) Agroforestry Classification and Management, pp 31-57. John Wiley & Sons, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  34. Nair PKR (1993) An Introduction to Agroforestry. Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, 499 ppGoogle Scholar
  35. Okafor JC and Fernandes ECM (1987) The compound farms of south-eastern Nigeria: a predominant agroforestry homegarden systems with crops and small livestock. Agrofor Syst 5: 153-168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Oldeman RAA (1983) The design of ecologically sound agroforests. In: Huxley PA (ed) Plant Research and Agroforestry, pp 173-208. ICRAF, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  37. Pickersgill B (1983) Aspects of evolution in herbaceous and tree crops relevant to agroforestry. In: Huxley PA (ed) Plant Research and Agroforestry, pp 309-322. ICRAF, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  38. Prance GT (1990) Fruits of the rainforest. New Scientist 125(1699): 42-45Google Scholar
  39. Raintree JB (1983) Strategies for enhancing the adoptability of agroforestry innovations. Agrofor Syst 1: 173-188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Raintree JB (1990) Theory and practice of agroforestry diagnosis and design. In: MacDicken KG and Vergara NT (eds) Agroforestry: Classification and Management, pp 58-97. John Wiley & Sons, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  41. Rocheleau DE (1987) The user perspective and the agroforestry research and action agenda. In: Gholz HL (ed) Agroforestry: Realities, Possibilities and Potentials, pp 59-87. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrecht, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  42. Ruthenberg H (1980) Farming Systems in the Tropics. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 424 ppGoogle Scholar
  43. Sanchez P (1995) Science in agroforestry. Agrofor Syst 30: 5-55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Schofield NJ (1993) Tree planting for dryland salinity control in Australia. In: Prinsley RT (ed) The Role of Trees in Sustainable Agriculture, pp 1-24. Kluwer Academic Publishers, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  45. Sibbald AR, Griffiths JH and Elston DA (1991) The effects of the presence of widely spaced conifers on under-storey herbage production in the UK. For Ecol Manage 45: 71-78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Simmonds NW (1985) Farming systems research: A Review. World Bank Technical Paper No. 43Google Scholar
  47. Sinclair FL (1988) An economic characterization of agroforestry. In: Sinclair FL, Kazana V and Shrimpton NH (eds) Economic Evaluation and Management of Agroforestry: a Novel Problem? pp 5-17. Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  48. Sinclair FL (1991) University education in agroforestry. Proceedings (8) of the 10th World Forestry Congress, Paris, September 1991. Revue Forestiere Francaise Hors Serie No. 8, pp 79-86Google Scholar
  49. Sinclair FL (1996) University Research and Agroforestry Development in Sri Lanka. School of Agricultural and Forest Sciences, University of Wales, Bangor, 147 ppGoogle Scholar
  50. Sinclair FL (1997) Developing an Agroforestry Strategy for Lumle Agricultural Research Centre. School of Agricultural and Forest Sciences, University of Wales, BangorGoogle Scholar
  51. Sinclair FL, Foster AS, Jenkins TAR and Waugh A (1991) The Global Database of Agroforestry Practices. Report on consultancy work conducted for ICRAF on the Agroforestry Systems Inventory (AFSI) database. School of Agricultural and Forest Sciences, University of Wales, Bangor, 15 pp + AppendicesGoogle Scholar
  52. Sinclair FL, Verinumbe I and Hall JB (1994) The role of tree domestication in agroforestry. In: Leakey RRB and Newton A (eds) Tropical Trees: the Potential for Domestication, pp 124-136. HMSO, LondonGoogle Scholar
  53. Spedding CRW (1976) Editorial. Agric Syst 1: 1Google Scholar
  54. Spedding CRW (1979) An Introduction to Agricultural Systems. Elsevier Applied Science, 189 ppGoogle Scholar
  55. Thapa B, Sinclair FL and Walker DH (1995) Incorporation of indigenous knowledge and perspectives in agroforestry development. Part 2: Case study on the impact of explicit representation of farmers' knowledge. Agrofor Syst 30: 249-261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Thapa B, Walker DH and Sinclair FL (1997) Indigenous knowledge of the feeding value of tree fodder. Animal Feed Science and Technology 67: 97-114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Tiffen M, Mortimore M and Gichuki F (1994) More People Less Erosion: Environmental Recovery in Kenya. Wiley, Chichester, 311 ppGoogle Scholar
  58. von Bertalanfy L (1950) The theory of open systems in physics and biology. Science 111: 23-29Google Scholar
  59. Williams PA, Gordon AM, Garrett HE and Buck L (1997) Agroforestry in North America and its role in farming systems. In: Gordon AM and Newman SM (eds) Temperate Agroforestry Systems, pp 9-84. CAB International, Wallingford, UKGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fergus L. Sinclair
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Agricultural and Forest SciencesUniversity of Wales, BangorGwyneddUK; E-mail

Personalised recommendations