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Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 34, Issue 13, pp 3213–3219 | Cite as

Preparation of nanostructured tin oxide using a sol-gel process based on tin tetrachloride and ethylene glycol

  • G. Zhang
  • M. Liu
Article

Abstract

A sol-gel process starting with tin tetrachloride and ethylene glycol as precursors, has been successfully used to prepare nanostructured tin oxide powders. The molecular structure evolution during the process has been identified using infrared spectroscopy and the underlying reaction mechanisms of the sol-gel process are proposed. Results suggest that the -OHCH2CH2OH- prevent Cl ions from access to tin ions due to steric effect and hence increase the stability of the sol solution. Ethylene glycol functions not only as a complexion agent to form a polymer network but also as a spacer to modulate the distance between metal ions, preventing metal oxide particles from aggregation during earlier stages of organics removal. Further, conversion of xerogel to tin oxide are studied using thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, and electron microscopy. It is found that cassiterite begins to form at a temperature as low as 250 °C when organics start to burn off. However, nanocrystalline tin oxide powders are formed only after the chemically bonded hydroxyl groups are completely removed at about 600 °C.

Keywords

Metal Oxide Thermogravimetric Analysis Oxide Particle Polymer Network Steric Effect 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Zhang
    • 1
  • M. Liu
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Materials Science and EngineeringGeorgia Institute of TechnologyAtlantaUSA

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