Subaerial terminoglacial fans I: a semi-quantitative sedimentological analysis of the proximal environment
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- Zieliński, T. & van Loon, A. Geologie en Mijnbouw (1998) 77: 1. doi:10.1023/A:1003535101480
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Fans formed under subaerial terminoglacial (previously called ‘ice-contact’) conditions have several characteristics that differ from those formed under other conditions. Twenty-five such fans in NE Poland were investigated to model the dominant genetic processes involved. These fans show, as do other types, a proximal, a middle and a distal environment. The present study deals with the proximal environment. The fans date from the last, i.e. Weichselian or Vistulian, glacial. The proximal terminoglacial fan comprises abundant gravelly sediments, resembling the glacial deposits from which they were derived. Three facies, each subdivided into two subfacies, can be distinguished; these are dominated by mass flows, unchannelised flows, and stream (= channelised) flows, respectively. The characteristics of the facies are described and illustrated. It is concluded that the irregular supply of water by the nearby ice masses dominates the sedimentary processes.