Error Rates in Generalized Shadowed Fading Channels
- 880 Downloads
Most of the existing models to describe the shadowed fading channels use either the Suzuki or Nakagami-lognormal probability density function (pdf), both based on lognormal shadowing. However, these two density functions do not lead to closed form solutions for the received signal power, making the computations of error rates and outages very cumbersome. A generalized or compound fading model which takes into account both fading and shadowing in wireless systems, is presented here. Starting with the Nakagami model for fading, shadowing is incorporated using a gamma distribution for the average power in the Nakagami fading model. This compound pdf developed here based on a gamma-gamma distribution is analytically simpler than the two pdfs based on lognormal shadowing and is general enough to incorporate most of the fading and shadowing observed in wireless channels. The performance of coherent BPSK is evaluated using this compound fading model.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.M. Patzold, Mobile Fading Channels, John Wiley and Sons, Inc.: West Sussex, U.K., 2002.Google Scholar
- 2.M. Nakagami, “The m Distribution. A General Formula for Intensity Distribution of Rapid Fading”, in W.C. Hoffman (ed.), Statistical Methods in Radio Wave Propagation, Pergamon: New York, 1960.Google Scholar
- 3.F. Hansen and F.I. Mano, “Mobile Fading-Rayleigh and Lognormal Superimposed”, IEEE Trans. Vehic. Tech., Vol. 26, pp. 332–335, 1977.Google Scholar
- 5.A.A. Abu-Dayya and N.C. Beaulieu, “Performance of Micro-and Macro Diversity on Shadowed Nakagami Fading Channels”, in Proc. GLOBE' 91, Vol. 2, pp. 1121–1124, 1991.Google Scholar
- 9.E.K. Al-Hussaini, A.M. Al-Bassiouni, H. Mourad and H. Al-Shennawy, “Composite Macroscopic and Microscopic Diversity of Sectorized Macrocellular and MicrocellularMobile Radio Systems Employing RAKE Receiver over Nakagami Fading plus Lognormal Shadowing Channel”, Wireless Personal Communications, Vol. 21, pp. 309–328, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 10.A. Abdi and M. Kaveh, “Comparison of DPSK and MSK Bit Error Rates for K and Rayleigh-lognormal Fading Channels”, IEEE Comm. Lett., Vol. 4, pp. 122–124, 2000.Google Scholar
- 11.A. Abdi, H.A. Barger and Kaveh, “A Simple Alternative to the Lognormal Model of Shadow Fading in Terrestrial and Satellite Channels”, in Proc. 45th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conf., Vol. 4, pp. 2058–2062, 2001.Google Scholar
- 13.D.J. Lewinsky, “Nonstationary Probabilistic Target and Cluttering ScatteringModels”, IEEE Trans. on AES, Vol. 31, pp. 490–498, 1983.Google Scholar
- 14.A. Papoulis and U. Pillai, Probability, Random Variables, and Stochastic Processes, 4th edn, McGraw-Hill: New York, 2002.Google Scholar
- 15.I.S. Gradsheteyn and I.M. Ryzhik, Table of Integrals, Series, and Products, Academic: New York, 1994.Google Scholar
- 17.J.G. Proakis, Digital Communications, 4th edn, McGraw-Hill: New York, 2001.Google Scholar
- 18.MATLAB, Version 6.5, Release13, The MathWorks, Inc., Natick, MA, 2002.Google Scholar