Different types of jet formation in collapsing cavitation and gas bubbles near a rigid boundary are explored by using an advanced boundary-integral technique which incorporates the transition from simply connected to multiply connected bubbles (i.e. toroidal bubbles). Physical interpretation and understanding is facilitated by the calculation of the evolving bubble shape, fluid velocities and pressures, the partitioning of kinetic, potential and gravitational energies, the circulation around the bubble and the Kelvin impulse associated with both the complete bubble and the high-speed liquid jet. In the most vigorous jet formation examples considered it is found that upto 31% of the total energy and upto 53% of the Kelvin impulse is associated with the jet. Practical implications of this study beyond the usual damage mechanisms imply that the level of bubble compression will be signiffcantly lessened leading to lower bubble gas temperatures and thence the corresponding change in the chemical reactivity of its contents or the emission of light. Calculations also suggest interesting phenomena around a standoff distance of 1⋅2 maximum bubble radii where the circulation around the bubble and the kinetic energy of the jet appear to have maximum values. The practical implications and experimental confirmation of this are yet to be explored.
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