Advertisement

Bioremediation of Vegetable Oil and Grease from Polluted Wastewater Using a Sand Biofilm System

  • Mohamed H. El-Masry
  • Ebtesam El-Bestawy
  • Nawal I. El-Adl
Article

Abstract

Pseudomonas sp. (L1), P. diminuta(L2) were among eight bacterial strains isolated from vegetable grease and oil-contaminated industrial wastewater, four of which only were found to have the ability to degrade oil and grease. They were identified and investigated for oil and grease degradation either individually or in combinations in previous unpublished work by the authors. Since the combination M1 (Pseudomonas sp. andP. diminuta) produced the highest degradative activity, it was used in the present study in a biofilm sand filter system for vegetable oil and grease removal. This system was tested either as one unit or two units in sequence where different flow rates (30, 50, 100 ml/h) were applied compared to a control unit(s). Results showed that both biofilm systems reduced oily wastewater, even in cases of high degree of pollution (fat, oil & grease (FOG), 7535 ppm; biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), 525 ppm; chemical oxygen demand (COD), 1660 ppm). Results also showed a removal of FOG with efficiency at 100%; BOD5 at 95.9% and COD at 96%, at 50 ml/h flow rate using one unit of biofilm system. On using two units in sequence, a complete removal of FOG, BOD5 and COD with efficiency 100%, at flow rate 100 ml/h was achieved. In conclusion, the previous biofilm results indicated the efficiency of such a system in treating oily polluted wastewater (vegetable oil origin) on the basis of bacterial isolates being used, the optimum flow rate, and the number of biofilm units used in sequence to obtain the highest removal capacity of such a system.

Biofilm bioremediation grease oil vegetable 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allison, D.G. 2003 The biofilm matrix. Biofouling 19, 139–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Battin, T.J., Kaplan, L.A., Newbold, D.J. & Hansen, C.M. 2003 Contributions of microbial biofilms to ecosystem processes in stream mesocosms. Nature 426, 439–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cammarota, M.C. & Annajr, G.L.S. 1998 Metabolic blocking of exopolysaccharides synthesis effects on microbial adhesion and biofilm accumulation. Biotechnology Letters 20, 1–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Campere, A.K., Hayes, J.T., Sturman, P.J., Jones, W.L. & Cunninghan, A.B. 1993 Effect of Motility and absorption rate coefficient on transport of bacteria through saturated porous media. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 59, 3455–3462.Google Scholar
  5. Cao, S.G., Yong, H., Ma, L. & Guo, S.C. 1996 Enzymatic properties by the immobilization method. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology 59, 7–14.Google Scholar
  6. Characklis, W.G. & Wildrer, P.A. 1989 Structure and function of biofilms. In Report of Dahlem Workshop on Structure and Function of Biofilms, Berlin, November 27-December. New York: John Wiley and Sons Ltd. ISBN 0-471-92480-6.Google Scholar
  7. Clesceri, L.S., Greenberg, C.G. & Eaton, A.D. 1999 Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 20th edn. USA: American Public Health Association (APHA). ISBN 0875532357.Google Scholar
  8. El-Gohary, F.A., Aboelella, S.I. & Ali, H.I. 1987 Management of wastewater from soap and food industries: a case study. Science of the Total Environment 6, 203–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. El-Masry, M.H., Hassouna, M.S., El-Rakshy, N. & Mousa, I.S. 1995 Bacterial populations in the biofilm and non-biofilm components of a sand filter used in water treatment. FEMS Microbiology Letters 131, 263–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fogarty, W.M. & Kelly, C.T. 1990 Microbial Enzymes and Biotechnology, 2nd edn. Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers. ISBN 1851664866.Google Scholar
  11. Gantzer, C.J., Cunningham, A.B., Gujer, W., Gutekunst, B., Heijnem, J.J., Lightfoot, E.N., Odham, G., Rosenberg, E. & Zehander, S.A.J.B. 1989 Exchange process at the fluid biofilm interface. In Report of Dahlem Workshop on Structure and Function of Biofilms, eds. Characklis, W.G. & Wilderer, P.A. Berlin, November 27-December 2. New York: John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 0-471-92480-6.Google Scholar
  12. Gehara, F. 1999 Activated sludge biofilm wastewater treatment system. Water Research 33, 230–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Glazer, A.N. & Nikaido, H. 1995 Microbial Biotechnology. In: Fundamentals of Applied Microbiology. Berkeley, USA: W.H. Freeman and company, ISBN 0716726084.Google Scholar
  14. Gonzales, D.M., Moreno, E., Samiento, Q.J. & Cormenzama, R.A. 1990 Studies activity of wastewater from olive oil mills (Alepechin) inhibitory activity of phenolic and fatty acids. Chemosphere 20, 423–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Jaeger, K.E., Ransac, S., Dijkstra, B.W., Caloson, C., Van Heuvel, M. & Missit, O. 1994 Bacterial lipases. FEMS Microbiology Reviews 15, 29–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kosugi, Y., SuZuki, H. & Funada, T. 1988 Hydrolysis of beef tallow by lipase from Pseudomonas sp. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 31, 349–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Martine, A.M. 1991 Bioconversion of Waste Material to Industrial Products. 2nd edn. Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers. 576 pp. ISBN 0751404233.Google Scholar
  18. Martirani, L., Giardina, P., Marzullo, L. & Sannia, G. 1996 Reduction of phenol content and toxicity in olive oil mill wastewater with the lininolytic fungus Pleurotus ostreatus. Water Research 30, 1914–1918.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mendiola, S., Achutegui, J.J., Sanchez, F.J. & San, M.J. 1998 Polluting potential wastewater from fish-meal and oil industries. Grasa Aceites 49, 30–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Nam, T.K., Timmons, M.B., Montemagno, C.D. & Tsukuda, S.M. 2000 Biofilm characteristics as affected by sand size and location in fluidized bed vessels. Aquacultural Engineering 22, 213–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Odegaar, H., Ruster, B. & Westrum, T. 1998 A new moving bed biofilm reactor-application and results. Water Science and Technology 19, 157–165.Google Scholar
  22. Qingwei, L., Mancl, K.M. & Tuovinen, O.H. 1998 Effect of inoculation on the biodegradation of butterfat-detergent mixtures in fixed-film sand columns. Bioresource Technology 64, 27–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Raj, S.A. & Murthy, D.V.S. 1999 Synthetic dairy wastewater treatment using cross flow medium trickling filter. Journal of Environmental Science and Health A 34, 357–369.Google Scholar
  24. Samkutty, P.J., Gough, R.H. & MaGrew, P. 1996 Biological treatment of dairy product plant wastes. Journal of Environmental Science and Health A 31, 2143–2153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Shabtai, Y. 1991 Isolation and characterization of a lipolytic bacterium capable of growing in a low-water content oil wateremulsion. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 57, 1740–1745.Google Scholar
  26. Shabtai, Y. & Daya-Mishre, N. 1992 Production, purification and properties of lipase from a bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa YS-7, capable of growing in water restricted environment. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 58, 174–180.Google Scholar
  27. Shabtai, Y. & Wang, D.I.C. 1990 Production of emulsion in fermentation process employing soybean oil in a carbon nitrogen coordinated feed. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 35, 753–765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Sigurgisledottir, S., Sonraodottir, M., Jonsson, A., Kristjarsson, J.K. & Mattheasson, E. 1993 Lipase activity of thermophilic bacteria from Icelandic hot spring. Biotechnology Letters 5, 361–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sneath, P.H.A., Mair, N.S. & Sharpe, M.E. 1986 Bergey's Manuual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol. 2. London: Williams and Wilkins. ISBN 0683078933.Google Scholar
  30. Staley, J.T., Bryant, M.P., Pfennig, N. & Holt, J.G. 1989 Bergey's Manuual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol. 3. London: Williams and Wilkins. ISBN 0683079085.Google Scholar
  31. Stams, A.G. & Oude, E.S.J. 1997 Understanding and advancing wastewater treatment. Current Opinion in Biotechnology 8, 328–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sutherland, I.W. 2001 The biofilm matrix-an immobilized but dynamic microbial environment. Trends in Microbiology 9, 222–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Suzuk, T., Mushing, Y., Yamame, T. & Shimiza, S. 1998 Mass production of lipase fed-batch culture of Pseudomonas Fluorenscense APP. Microbiology & Biotechnology 27, 417–422.Google Scholar
  34. Watnick, P. & Kolter, R. 2000 Biofilm: city of microbes. Journal of Bacteriology 182, 2675–2679.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Williams, S.T. Sharpe, M.E. & Holt, J.G. 1989 Bergey's Manuual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol. 4. London: Williams and Wilkins. ISBN 0683090615.Google Scholar
  36. Woolley, P. & Petersen, S.B. 1994 Lipases: Their Structure, Biochemistry and Application. UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521445469.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohamed H. El-Masry
    • 1
  • Ebtesam El-Bestawy
    • 2
  • Nawal I. El-Adl
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Biotechnology, Institute of Graduate Studies & ResearchAlexandria UniversityEgypt
  2. 2.Department of Environmental Studies, Institute of Graduate Studies & ResearchAlexandria UniversityEgypt Tel.:
  3. 3.Quality Control LabExtracted Oils and Derivatives CompanyEgypt

Personalised recommendations