Water, Air, and Soil Pollution

, Volume 157, Issue 1–4, pp 281–293 | Cite as

Plant Tissue Extraction Method for Complexed and Free Cyanide

  • Joseph T. Bushey
  • Stephen D. Ebbs
  • David A. Dzombak

Abstract

A method for free cyanide and strongly-complexed cyanide measurement within plant tissue was developed to study uptake and movement of cyanide species separately from cyanide metabolism and metabolite movement by a willow plant (Salix eriocephala var. Michaux). Spike recoveries from solutions with and without plant tissue, using various solvent combinations, and background control tissue contributions were investigated to obtain an accurate and precise extraction method for measurement of complexed and free cyanide concentrations within plant tissue. The optimum extraction technique involved the freezing of plant tissue with liquid nitrogen to facilitate homogenization prior to extraction. Homogenized willow tissue samples, 1 to 1.5 g-fresh weight, were ground a second time under liquid nitrogen followed by grinding in slurry with 2.5 M NaOH. The slurry was brought to 100 mL volume, sonicated for 5 min, extracted in the dark for 16 h, and analyzed without filtration for total and free cyanide by acid distillation and microdiffusion respectively. Sample tissue extraction controls found recoveries of 89% and 100% for 100 μg L−1 CNT as KCN and K4Fe(CN)6 spiked in willow tissue slurries. Methanol, hexane, and 2-octanol inclusion in the solvent matrix with 2.5 M NaOH interfered with the cyanide analytical technique while chloroform reacted with NaOH and free cyanide in solution. Filtration was not included due to increased cyanide loss, and analysis of control tissue showed minimal release of cyanide or interference of plant tissue with the cyanide analytical method. Tissue cyanide concentrations from hydroponically-exposed tissue using the optimal extraction method agreed with tissue cyanide stable isotope (15N) results.

cyanide extraction ferrocyanide plant analysis plant concentration Salix eriocephala var. Michaux speciation willow 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR): 1997, Toxicological Profile for Cyanide, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Services, Atlanta, GA, 255 pp.Google Scholar
  2. Aikman, K., Bergman, D., Ebinger, J. and Seigler, D.: 1996, ‘Variation of cyanogenesis in some plant species of the Midwestern United States’, Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 24, 637-645.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. APHA/AWWA/WEF: 1998, ‘4500-CN. Cyanide’, in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 20th edn., American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, and Water Environment Federation, Washington, DC, pp. 4-2-4-40.Google Scholar
  4. ASTM: 1998, ‘Standard Test Method for Determination of Free Cyanide inWater andWastewater by Microdiffusion, Designation D4282-95’, in 1998 Annual Book of ASTM Standards, vol. 14.02, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA. pp. 468-472.Google Scholar
  5. Bushey, J. T. and Dzombak, D. A.: 2004, ‘Ferrocyanide adsorption on aluminum oxides’, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 272, 46-51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bushey, J. T.: 2003, ‘Modeling Cyanide Uptake by Willows for Phytoremediation’, Ph.D. Thesis, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, 343 pp.Google Scholar
  7. Chank, J. K.: 1997, ‘pH-Dependent Adsorption of Hexacyanoferrate(II) onto Selected Sorbents’, M.S. Thesis, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY, 104 pp.Google Scholar
  8. Cohen, C. K., Fox, T. C., Garvin, D. F. and Kocian, L. V.: 1998, ‘The role of iron-deficiency stress responses in stimulating heavy metal transport in plants’, Plant Physiol. 116, 1063-1072.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. DeForest, E. M.: 1976, ‘Chloromethanes’, in J. J.McKetta andW. A. Cunningham (eds), Encyclopedia of Chemical Processing and Design, Vol. 8, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, NY, pp. 214-270.Google Scholar
  10. Ebbs, S. D., Bushey, J.T., Poston, S., Kosma, D., Samiotakis, M. and Dzombak, D. A.: 2003, ‘Transport and metabolism of free cyanide and iron cyanide complexes by willow’, Plant Cell Environ. 26, 1467-1478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Forslund, K. and Jonsson, L.: 1997, ‘Cyanogenic glycosides and their metabolic enzymes in barley, in relation to nitrogen levels’, Physiol. Plant 101, 367-372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Grossman, K. and Kwiatkowski, J.: 1995, ‘Evidence for a causative role of cyanide, derived from ethylene biosynthesis, in the herbicidal mode of action of quinclorac in barnyard grass’, Pesticide Biochem. Physiol. 51, 150-160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Halkier, B. A. and Møller, B. L.: 1990, ‘The biosynthesis of cyanogenic glucosides in higher plants’, J. Biol. Chem. 265, 21114-21121.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Hart, J. J., Norvell, W. J., Welch, R. M., Sullivan, L. A. and Kocian, L. V.: 1998, ‘Characterization of zinc uptake, binding, and translocation in intact seedlings of bread and durum wheat cultivars’, Plant Physiol. 118, 219-226.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Howe, M. and Noble, D.: 1985, ‘Effect of cyanide residue on vegetation bordering a Black Hills stream’, Proc. S.D. Acad. Sci. 64, 112-122.Google Scholar
  16. Jacobs, K. A., Santamour, F. S. Jr., Johnson, G. R. and Dirr, M. A.: 1996, ‘Differential resistance to Entomosporium leafspot disease and hydrogen cyanide potential in Photinia’, J. Environ. Hort. 14, 154-157.Google Scholar
  17. Kobaisy, M., Oomah, B. D. and Mazza, G.: 1996, ‘Determination of cyanogenic glycosides in flaxseed by barbituric acid - pyridine, pyridine - pyrazolone, and high-performance liquid chromatography methods’, J. Agric. Food Chem. 44, 3178-3181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Köster, H. W.: 2001, ‘Risk Assessment of Historical Soil Contamination with Cyanides: Origin, Potential Human Exposure and Evaluation of Intervention Values’, RIVM Report 711701019, Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu (National Institute of Public Health and the Environment), Bilthoven, The Netherlands, 160 pp.Google Scholar
  19. Lechtenberg, M., Nahrstedt, A., Wray, V. and Fronczek, F. R.: 1994, ‘Cyanoglucosides from Osmaronia cerasiformis(rosaceae)’, Phytochemistry 37, 1039-1043.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Mizutani, F., Hirota, R. and Kadoya, K.: 1987, ‘Cyanide metabolism linked with ethylene biosynthesis in ripening apple fruit’, J. Japan. Soc. Hort. Sci. 56, 31-38.Google Scholar
  21. Nolte, K. B. and Dasgupta, A.: 1996, ‘Prevention of occupational cyanide exposure in autopsy prosectors’, J. Forensic Sci. 41, 146-147.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Selmar, D., Grocholewski, S. and Seigler, D. S.: 1990, ‘Cyanogenic Lipids’, Plant Physiol. 93, 631-636.Google Scholar
  23. Swanson, J. R. and Krasselt, W. G.: 1994, ‘An acetonitrile-related death’, J. Forensic Sci. 39, 271-279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Tittle, F. L., Goudey, J. S. and Spencer, M. S.: 1990, ‘Effect of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on endogenous cyanide, ß-cyanoalanine synthase activity, and ethylene evolution in seedlings of soybean and barley’, Plant Physiol. 94, 1143-1148.Google Scholar
  25. Yip, W. and Yang, S. F.: 1988, ‘Cyanide metabolism in relation to ethylene production in plant tissues’, Plant Physiol. 88, 473-476.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joseph T. Bushey
    • 1
  • Stephen D. Ebbs
    • 2
  • David A. Dzombak
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringSyracuse UniversitySyracuseUSA
  2. 2.Department of Plant BiologySouthern Illinois University CarbondaleCarbondaleUSA
  3. 3.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringCarnegie Mellon UniversityPittsburghUSA

Personalised recommendations