Water, Air, and Soil Pollution

, Volume 151, Issue 1–4, pp 53–70 | Cite as

Formation and Deposition of Ozone in a Red Pine Forest

  • Masahiro Utiyama
  • Tsutomu Fukuyama
  • Yasuko Yamada Maruo
  • Toshihiro Ichino
  • Katsuyuki Izumi
  • Hiroshi Hara
  • Kenichi Takano
  • Haruko Suzuki
  • Masatoshi Aoki
Article

Abstract

Concentrations of ozone and nitrogen oxides, together with air temperature and solar radiation intensity, were measured at several heights on a tower standing through the canopy of a red pine forest in summer and in autumn. In the summer observation, the diurnal variation patterns of ozone concentration both above and below the canopy were all similar and parallel to the solar radiation intensity. Using the data collected immediately above the canopy, deviation from the Leighton relationship and variations of concentration sums [O3] + [NO] and [NO2] + [NO] were examined, and as a result, it was supposedthat ozone was photochemically formed there in the daytime, probably because hydrocarbons emitted from pine trees broke the photostationary state among ozone and nitrogen oxides. The vertical temperature profile exhibited an inversion at the leaf-layer, which must have hindered vertical mixing of the air and made the trunk space more or less isolated from the upper atmosphere. These observations led to an idea that the similarity of the ozone variation pattern at every height was caused by the photochemical formation that proceeded simultaneously above and below the canopy rather than by vertical transport. Such situations of ozone formation were supported by observation of two maximums in the ozone vertical profile, one immediately above the canopy and another in the trunk space. Another feature of the ozone profile was a deep minimum in the leaf layer, which indicated ozone deposition onto leaf surfaces. This study thus revealed concurrence of ozone formation and deposition, and left two potentially important implications worthy of further investigation: (1) a forest is not always a sink but can be a source of ozone in sunlit conditions, and (2) deposition of ozone to trees can take place not only from outside but also from inside of a forest. In the autumn observation, however, the ozone formation was barely recognizable above the canopy and no longer found in the trunk space; in addition, the ozone concentration minimum in the leaf layer disappeared, suggesting that the deposition or removal was dependent on temperature.

ozone deposition ozone formation red pine forest 

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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Masahiro Utiyama
    • 1
  • Tsutomu Fukuyama
    • 1
  • Yasuko Yamada Maruo
    • 2
  • Toshihiro Ichino
    • 2
  • Katsuyuki Izumi
    • 3
  • Hiroshi Hara
    • 4
  • Kenichi Takano
    • 5
  • Haruko Suzuki
    • 5
  • Masatoshi Aoki
    • 5
  1. 1.National Institute for Environmental StudiesTsukubaJapan
  2. 2.NTT Lifestyle and Environmental Technology LaboratoriesAtsugiJapan
  3. 3.Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of EngineeringToyo UniversityKujirai, KawagoeJapan
  4. 4.National Institute for Public HealthMinato-ku, TokyoJapan
  5. 5.Faculty of Agriculture, TokyoUniversity of Agriculture and TechnologyFuchuJapan

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