International Journal of Computer Vision

, Volume 56, Issue 3, pp 151–177 | Cite as

Object Detection Using the Statistics of Parts

  • Henry Schneiderman
  • Takeo Kanade


In this paper we describe a trainable object detector and its instantiations for detecting faces and cars at any size, location, and pose. To cope with variation in object orientation, the detector uses multiple classifiers, each spanning a different range of orientation. Each of these classifiers determines whether the object is present at a specified size within a fixed-size image window. To find the object at any location and size, these classifiers scan the image exhaustively.

Each classifier is based on the statistics of localized parts. Each part is a transform from a subset of wavelet coefficients to a discrete set of values. Such parts are designed to capture various combinations of locality in space, frequency, and orientation. In building each classifier, we gathered the class-conditional statistics of these part values from representative samples of object and non-object images. We trained each classifier to minimize classification error on the training set by using Adaboost with Confidence-Weighted Predictions (Shapire and Singer, 1999). In detection, each classifier computes the part values within the image window and looks up their associated class-conditional probabilities. The classifier then makes a decision by applying a likelihood ratio test. For efficiency, the classifier evaluates this likelihood ratio in stages. At each stage, the classifier compares the partial likelihood ratio to a threshold and makes a decision about whether to cease evaluation—labeling the input as non-object—or to continue further evaluation. The detector orders these stages of evaluation from a low-resolution to a high-resolution search of the image. Our trainable object detector achieves reliable and efficient detection of human faces and passenger cars with out-of-plane rotation.

object recognition object detection face detection car detection pattern recognition machine learning statistics computer vision wavelets classification 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Henry Schneiderman
    • 1
  • Takeo Kanade
    • 1
  1. 1.Robotics InstituteCarnegie Mellon UniversityPittsburghUSA

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