User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction

, Volume 14, Issue 4, pp 289–316

A Framework for the Initialization of Student Models in Web-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems

  • Victoria Tsiriga
  • Maria Virvou

DOI: 10.1023/

Cite this article as:
Tsiriga, V. & Virvou, M. User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction (2004) 14: 289. doi:10.1023/


Initializing a student model for individualized tutoring in educational applications is a difficult task, since very little is known about a new student. On the other hand, fast and efficient initialization of the student model is necessary. Otherwise the tutoring system may lose its credibility in the first interactions with the student. In this paper we describe a framework for the initialization of student models in Web-based educational applications. The framework is called ISM. The basic idea of ISM is to set initial values for all aspects of student models using an innovative combination of stereotypes and the distance weighted k-nearest neighbor algorithm. In particular, a student is first assigned to a stereotype category concerning her/his knowledge level of the domain being taught. Then, the model of the new student is initialized by applying the distance weighted k-nearest neighbor algorithm among the students that belong to the same stereotype category with the new student. ISM has been applied in a language learning system, which has been used as a test-bed. The quality of the student models created using ISM has been evaluated in an experiment involving classroom students and their teachers. The results from this experiment showed that the initialization of student models was improved using the ISM framework.

initialization machine learning for user modeling stereotypes student modeling Web-based intelligent tutoring systems 

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Victoria Tsiriga
    • 1
  • Maria Virvou
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of InformaticsUniversity of PiraeusGreece

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