Space Science Reviews

, Volume 109, Issue 1–4, pp 105–131

Ring Current Energy Input and Decay

  • Janet U. Kozyra
  • Michael W. Liemohn
Article

Abstract

A new view of the ring current as an active element in the geospace system has emerged in which the ring current responds not only to changing convection electric fields imposed by solar wind interactions but to internal dynamics of the magnetosphere-ionosphere-atmosphere (geospace) system. Variations in the plasma sheet density, temperature and composition, saturation of the polar cap potential drop (and presumably the cross-tail potential drop), modifications to the imposed convection potential in the inner magnetosphere due to ring current shielding effects, the presence of a pre-existing ring current population, storm-substorm coupling, and strong convection with and without accompanying substorm activity all have an impact on the ring current strength, formation and loss. All of these internal processes imply that the geoeffectiveness of a solar wind driver cannot be predicted on the basis of the characteristics of the driver alone but must reflect key aspects of the dynamically changing geospace environment, itself. This review gives a summary of new information on ring current input and decay processes focusing on implications for the global geospace response to solar wind drivers during magnetic storms and on open questions that can be addressed with new ENA imaging techniques.

inner magnetosphere ring current space storms substorms 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Akasofu, S.-I.: 1981, 'Energy coupling between the solar wind and the magnetosphere', Space Sci. Rev. 28, p. 121.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  2. Alexeev, I.I., Belenkaya, E.S., Kalegaev, V.V., Feldstein, Y.I. and Grafe, A.: 1996, 'Magnetic storms and magnetotail currents', J. Geophys. Res. 101, 7737-7747.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson, B.J., Decker, R.B., Paschalidis, N.P. and Sarris, T.: 1997, 'Onset of nonadiabatic particle motion in the near-Earth magnetotail', J. Geophys. Res. 102, p. 17,553.ADSGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson, P.C., Carpenter, D.L., Tsuruda, K., Mukai, T. and Rich, F.J.: 2001, 'Multisatellite observations of rapid subauroral ion drifts (SAID)', J. Geophys. Res. 106, p. 29,585.ADSGoogle Scholar
  5. Bame, S.J. et al.: 1993, 'Magnetospheric plasma analyzer for spacecraft with constrained resources', Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, p. 1026.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  6. Belian, R.D., Gisler, G.R., Cayton, T. and Christensen, R.: 1992, 'High-Z energetic particles at geosynchronous orbit during the great solar proton event series of October 1989', J. Geophys. Res. 97, p. 16,897.ADSGoogle Scholar
  7. Birn, J., Thomsen, M.F., Borovsky, J.E., Reeves, G.D., McComas, D.J. and Belian, R.D.: 1997, 'Characteristic plasma properties during dispersionless substorm injections at geosynchronous orbit', J. Geophys. Res. 102, p. 2309.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  8. Borovsky, J.E., Thomsen, M.F. and McComas, D.J.: 1997, 'The superdense plasma sheet: Plasmaspheric origin, solar wind origin, or ionospheric origin?', J. Geophys. Res. 102, p. 22,089.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  9. Burke, W.J., Maynard, N.C., Hagan, M.P., Wolf, R.A., Wilson, G.R., Gentile, L.C., Gussenhoven, M.S., Huang, C.Y., Garner, T.W. and Rich, F.J.: 1998, 'Electrodynamics of the inner magnetosphere observed in the dusk sector by CRRES and DMSP during the magnetic storm of June 4-6, 1991', J. Geophys. Res. 103, 29,399-29,418.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  10. Burke, W.J., Weimer, D.R. and Maynard, N.C.: 1999, 'Geoeffective interplanetary scale sizes derived from regression analysis of polar cap potentials', J. Geophys. Res. 104, p. 9989.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  11. Burton, R.K., McPherron, R.L. and Russell, C.T.: 1975, 'An empirical relationship between interplanetary conditions and Dst', J. Geophys. Res. 80, 4204-4214.ADSGoogle Scholar
  12. Campbell,W.H.: 1996, 'Geomagnetic storms, the Dst ring-current myth and lognormal distributions', J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 58, 1171-1187.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  13. Carovillano, R.L., and Siscoe, G.L.: 1973, 'Energy and momentum theorems in magnetospheric processes', Rev. of Geophys. Space Phys. 11, p. 289.ADSGoogle Scholar
  14. Chappell, C.R., Giles, B.L., Moore, T.E., Delcourt, D.C., Craven, P.D., and Chandler, M.O.: 2000, 'The adequacy of the ionospheric source in supplying magnetospheric plasma', J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 62, 421-436.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  15. Chen, M.W., Lyons, L.R. and Schulz, M.: 1994, 'Simulations of phase space distributions of storm-time proton ring current', J. Geophys. Res. 99, p. 5745.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  16. Chen, M.W., Roeder, J.L., Fennell, J.F., Lyons, L.R. and Schulz, M.: 1998, 'Simulations of ring current proton pitch angle distributions', J. Geophys. Res. 103, 165-179.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  17. Chen, M.W., Lyons, L.R. and Schulz, M.: 2000, 'Stormtime ring-current formation: A comparison between single-and double-dip model storms with similar transport characteristics', J. Geophys. Res. 105, p. 27,755.ADSGoogle Scholar
  18. Christon, S.P., Desai, M.I., Eastman, T.E., Gloeckler, G., Kokubun, S., Lui, A.T.Y., McEntire, R.W., Roelof, E.C. and Williams, D.J.: 2000, 'Low-charge-state heavy ions upstream of Earth's bow shock and sunward flux of ionosphere O+, N+, and O2+ ions: Geotail observations', Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 2433-2436.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  19. Cladis, J.B.: 1986, 'Parallel acceleration and transport of ions from polar ionosphere to plasma sheet',Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 893-896.ADSGoogle Scholar
  20. Craven, J.D., Frank, L.A. and Ackerson, K.L.: 1982, 'Global observations of a SAR arc', Geophys. Res. Lett. 9, 961-964.ADSGoogle Scholar
  21. Crooker, N.U. and Siscoe, G.L.: 1974, 'Model geomagnetic disturbance from asymmetric ring current particles', J. Geophys. Res. 79, p. 589.ADSGoogle Scholar
  22. C:son Brandt, P., Mitchell, D.G., Roelof, E.C. and Burch, J.L.: 2001, 'Bastille day storm: Global response of the terrestrial ring current', Solar Phys. 204, p. 377.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  23. Daglis, I.A. and Axford,W.I.: 1996, 'Fast ionospheric response to enhanced activity in geospace: Ion feeding of the inner magnetotail', J. Geophys. Res. 101, 5047-5065.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  24. Daglis, I.A. and Kozyra, J.U.: 2002, 'Outstanding issues of ring current dynamics', J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 64, 253-264.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  25. Daglis, I.A., Thorne, R.M., Baumjohann,W. and Orsini, S.: 1999, 'The terrestrial ring current: origin, formation and decay', Rev. Geophys. 37, 407-438.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  26. de Michelis, P., Daglis, I.A. and Consolini, G.: 1997, 'Average terrestrial ring current derived from AMPTE/CCE-CHEM measurements', J. Geophys. Res. 102, 14103-14111.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  27. Delcourt, D.C., Moore, T.E. and Chappell, C.R.: 1994, 'Contribution of low-energy ionospheric protons to the plasma sheet', J. Geophys. Res. 99, p. 5681.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  28. Dessler, A.J. and Parker, E.N.: 1959, 'Hydromagnetic theory of geomagnetic storms', J. Geophys. Res. 64, p. 2239.ADSGoogle Scholar
  29. Ebihara, Y. and Ejiri, M.: 1998, 'Modeling of solar wind control of the ring current buildup: a case study of the magnetic storms in April 1997', Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3751-3754.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  30. Ebihara, Y. and Ejiri, M.: 2000, 'Simulation study on fundamental properties of the storm-time ring current', J. Geophys. Res. 105, p. 15,843.Google Scholar
  31. Fok, M.-C., Kozyra, J.U., Nagy, A.F. and Cravens, T.E.: 1991, 'Lifetime of ring current particles due to Coulomb collisions in the plasmasphere', J. Geophys. Res. 96, 7861-7867.ADSGoogle Scholar
  32. Fok, M.-C., Kozyra, J.U., Nagy, A.F., Rasmussen, C.E. and Khazanov, G.V.: 1993, 'Decay of equatorial ring current ions and associated aeronomical consequences', J. Geophys. Res. 98, p. 19,381.ADSGoogle Scholar
  33. Fok, M.-C., Moore, T.E. and Delcourt, D.C.: 1999, 'Modeling of inner plasma sheet and ring current during substorms', J. Geophys. Res. 104, p. 14,557.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  34. Fok, M.-C., Wolf, R.A., Spiro, R.W. and Moore, T.E.: 2001, 'Comprehensive computational model of the Earth's ring current', J. Geophys. Res. 106, p. 8417.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  35. Frank, L.A.: 1970, 'Direct detection of asymmetric increases of extraterrestrial 'ring current' proton intensities in the outer radiation zone', J. Geophys. Res. 75, p. 1263.ADSGoogle Scholar
  36. Fu, S.Y., Wilken, B., Zong, Z.G. and Pu, Z.Y.: 2001, 'Ion composition variations in the inner magnetosphere: Individual and collective storm effects in 1991', J. Geophys. Res. 106, p. 29,683.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  37. Garner, T.W.: 2000, 'A case study of the June 4-5, 1991 magnetic storm using the Rice Convection Model', Ph.D. thesis, Rice Univ.Google Scholar
  38. Gonzalez, W.D., Joselyn, J.A., Kamide, Y., Kroehl, H.W., Rostoker, G., Tsurutani, B.T. and Vasyliunas, V.M.: 1994, 'What is a geomagnetic storm?', J. Geophys. Res. 99, p. 5771.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  39. Grafe, A.: 1999, 'Are our ideas about Dst correct?', Ann. Geophys. 17, 1-10.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  40. Grande, M., Perry, C.H., Hall, A., Fennell, J. and Wilken, B.: 1999, 'Statistics of substorm occurrence in storm and non-storm periods', Phys. Chem. Earth 24, p. 167.Google Scholar
  41. Greenspan, M.E. and Hamilton, D.C.: 2000, 'A test of the Dessler-Parker-Sckopke relation during magnetic storms', J. Geophys. Res. 105, p. 5419.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  42. Gussenhoven, M.S., Hardy, D.A. and Heinemann, M.: 1983, 'Systematics of the equatorward diffuse auroral boundary', J. Geophys. Res. 88, p. 5692.ADSGoogle Scholar
  43. Hamilton, D.C., Gloeckler, G., Ipavich, F.M., Studemann, W., Wilkey, B. and Kremser, G.: 1988, 'Ring current development during the great geomagnetic storm of February 1986', J. Geophys. Res. 93, 14343-14355.ADSGoogle Scholar
  44. Henderson, M.G., Reeves, G.D., Spence, H.E., Sheldon, R.B., Jorgensen, A.M., Blake, J.B. and Fennell, J.F.: 1997, 'First energetic neutral atom images from Polar', Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, p. 1167.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  45. Jordanova, V.K., Kistler, L.M., Kozyra, J.U., Khazanov, G.V. and Nagy, A.F.: 1996, 'Collisional losses of ring current ions', J. Geophys. Res. 101, p. 111.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  46. Jordanova, V.K., Kozyra, J.U., Nagy, A.F. and Khazanov, G.V.: 1997, 'Kinetic model of the ring current-atmosphere interactions', J. Geophys. Res. 102, p. 14,279.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  47. Jordanova, V.K., Farrugia, C.J., Quinn, J.M., Thorne, R.M., Ogilvie, K.W., Lepping, R.P., Lu, G., Lazarus, A.J., Thomsen, M.F. and Belian, R.D.: 1998, 'Effects of wave-particle interactions on ring current evolution for January 10-11, 1997: initial results', Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, p. 2971.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  48. Jordanova, V.K., Torbert, R.B., Thorne, R.M., Collin, H.L., Roeder, J.L. and Foster, J.C.: 1999, 'Ring current activity during the early Bz<0 phase of the January 1997 magnetic cloud', J. Geophys. Res. 104, 24,895-24,914.ADSGoogle Scholar
  49. Jordanova, V.K., Kistler, L.M., Farrugia, C.J. and Torbert, R.B.: 2001, 'Effects of inner magnetospheric convection on ring current dynamics: March 10-12, 1998', J. Geophys. Res. 106, p. 29,705.ADSGoogle Scholar
  50. Jorgensen, A.M., Spence, H.E., Henderson, M.G., Reeves, G.D., Sugiura, M. and Kamei, T.: 1997, 'Global energetic neutral atom (ENA) measurements and their association with the Dst index', Geophys. Res., Lett. 24, pp. 3173-3176.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  51. Jorgensen, A.M., Henderson, M.G., Roelof, E.C., Reeves, G.D. and Spence, H.E.: 2001, 'Charge exchange contribution to the decay of the ring current, measured by energetic neutral atoms (ENAs)', J. Geophys. Res. 106, p. 1931.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  52. Kamide, Y., Yokoyama, N., Gonzalez, W., Tsurutani, B.T., Daglis, I.A., Brekke, A. and Masuda, S.: 1998a, 'Two-step development of geomagnetic storms', J. Geophys. Res. 103, 6917-6921.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  53. Kamide, Y., Baumjohann, W., Daglis, I.A., Gonzalez, W.D., Grande, M., Joselyn, J.A., McPherron, R.L., Phillips, J.L., Reeves, G.D., Rostoker, G., Sharma, A.S., Singer, H.J., Tsurutani, B.T. and Vasyliunas, V.M.: 1998b, 'Current understanding of magnetic storms: Storm-substorm relationships', J. Geophys. Res. 103, 17705-17728.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  54. Kozyra, J.U., Nagy, A.F. and Slater, D.W.: 1997a, 'The high altitude energy source for stable auroral red (SAR) arcs', Rev. Geophys. 35, p. 155.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  55. Kozyra, J.U., Jordanova, V.K., Horne, R.B. and Thorne, R.M.: 1997b, 'Modeling of the contribution of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves to stormtime ring current erosion', in B.T. Tsurutani, W.D. Gonzalez, Y. Kamide and J.K. Arballo (eds.), Magnetic Storms, Geophys. Monogr. Ser., American Geophysical Union, Washington, D. C., 98 p. 187.Google Scholar
  56. Kozyra, J.U., Borovsky, J.E., Chen, M.W., Fok, M.-C. and Jordanova, V.K.: 1998a, 'Plasma sheet preconditioning, enhanced convection and ring current development', in S. Kokubun and Y. Kamide, Terra (eds.), Substorms-4, Scientific Publishing Co./Kluwer Academic Publishers, p. 755.Google Scholar
  57. Kozyra, J.U., Fok, M.-C., Sanchez, E.R., Evans, D.S., Hamilton, D.C. and Nagy, A.F.: 1998b, 'The role of precipitation losses in producing the rapid early recovery phase of the great magnetic storm of February 1986',J. Geophys. Res. 103, p. 6801.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  58. Kozyra, J.U., Liemohn, M.W., Clauer, C.R., Ridley, A.J., Thomsen, M.F., Borovsky, J.E., Roeder, J.L. and Jordanova, V.K.: 2002, 'Two-step Dst development and ring current composition changes during the 4-6 June 1991 magnetic storm', J. Geophys. Res. 107, 1224, doi: 10.1029/2001JA000023.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Langel, R.A. and Estes, R.H.: 1985, 'Large-scale, near-field magnetic fields from external sources and the corresponding induced magnetic field', J. Geophys. Res. 90, p. 2487.ADSGoogle Scholar
  60. Lennartsson,W. and Shelley, E.G.: 1986, 'Survey of 0.1-to 16-keV/e plasma sheet ion composition', J. Geophys. Res. 91, p. 3061.ADSGoogle Scholar
  61. Liemohn, M.W. and Kozyra, J.U.: 2002, 'Assessing the importance of convective and inductive electric fields in forming the stormtime ring current', in R.L. Winglee (ed.), Sixth International Conference on Substorms, Univ. Washington, Seattle, pp.456-462.Google Scholar
  62. Liemohn, M.W. and Kozyra, J.U.: 2003, 'Lognormal form of the ring current energy content', J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys, in press.Google Scholar
  63. Liemohn, M.W., Kozyra, J.U., Jordanova, V.K., Khazanov, G.V., Thomsen, M.F. and Cayton, T.E.: 1999, 'Analysis of early phase ring current recovery mechanisms during geomagnetic storms', Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 2845-2848.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  64. Liemohn, M.W., Kozyra, J.U., Richards, P.G., Khazanov, G.V. Buonsanto, M.J. and Jordanova, V.K.: 2000, 'Ring current heating of the thermal electrons at solar maximum', J. Geophys. Res. 105, p. 27,767.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  65. Liemohn, M.W., Kozyra, J.U., Thomsen, M.F., Roeder, J.L., Lu, G., Borovsky, J.E. and Cayton, T.E.: 2001a, 'Dominant role of the asymmetric ring current in producing the stormtime Dst ?', J. Geophys. Res. 106, p. 10,883.ADSGoogle Scholar
  66. Liemohn, M., Kozyra, J.U., Clauer, C.R. and Ridley, A.J.: 2001b, 'Computational analysis of the near-Earth magnetospheric current system', J. Geophys. Res. 106, p. 29,531.ADSGoogle Scholar
  67. Liemohn, M.W., Kozyra, J.U., Clauer, C.R., Khazanov, G.V. and Thomsen, M.F.: 2002a, 'Adiabatic energization in the ring current and its relation to other source and loss terms', J. Geophys. Res. 107(A4), 1045, doi: 10.1029/2001JA000243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Liemohn, M.W., Kozyra, J.U., Hairston, M.R., Weimer, D.M., Lu, G., Ridley, A.J., Zurbuchen, T.H. and Skoug, R.M.: 2002b, 'Consequences of a saturated convection electric field on the ring current', Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(9), 1348, doi: 10.1029/2001GL014270.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  69. Lyatsky,W.: 1999, 'A possible role of ion demagnetization in substorm generation', J. Geophys. Res. 104, p. 19,095.Google Scholar
  70. Lyons, L.R. and Schulz, M.: 1989, 'Access of energetic particles to storm time ring current through enhanced radial 'diffusion', J. Geophys. Res. 94, 5491-5496.ADSGoogle Scholar
  71. McIlwain, C.E.: 1986, 'A Kp dependent equatorial electric field model', Adv. Space Res. 6(3), p. 187.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  72. McPherron, R.L.: 1997, 'The role of substorms in the generation of magnetic storms', in B.T. Tsurutani, W.D. Gonzalez, Y. Kamide and J.K. Arballo, Magnetic Storms, Geophys. Monogr., AGU, Washington, 98 pp. 131-147.Google Scholar
  73. Mitchell, D.G., Hsieh, K.C., Curtis, C.C., Hamilton, D.C., Voss, H.D., Roelof, E.C. and C:son Brandt, P.: 2001, 'Imaging two geomagnetic storms in energetic neutral atoms', Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1151-1154.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  74. Moore, T.E., and Delcourt, D.C.: 1995, 'The geopause', Rev. Geophys. 33, p. 175.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  75. Moore, T.E. et al.: 1999, 'Ionospheric mass ejection in response to a CME', Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 2339-2342.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  76. Nose, M., Ohtani, S., Takahashi, K., Lui, A.T.Y., McEntire, R.W., Williams, D.J., Christon, S.P. and Yumoto, K.: 2001, 'Ion composition of the near-Earth plasma sheet in storm and quiet intervals: Geotail/EPIC measurements', J.Geophys. Res. 106, p. 8391.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  77. O'Brien, T.P. and McPherron, R.L.: 2000, 'An empirical phase space analysis of ring current dynamics: solar wind control of injection and decay', J. Geophys. Res. 105, 7707-7719.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  78. Pollock, C.J. et al.: 2001, 'Initial Medium Energy Neutral Atom (MENA) images of Earth's magnetosphere during substorms and storm-time', Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1147-1150.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  79. Posner, A., Schwadron, N.A., Zurbuchen, T.H., Kozyra, J.U., Liemohn, M.W. and Gloeckler, G.: 2002, 'Association of low-charge-state heavy ions far upstream of the Earth's bow shock with space weather', Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(7), 1099, doi: 10.1029/2001GL013449.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  80. Pulkkinen, T.I., Ganushkina, N.Y., Baker, D.N., Turner, N.E., Fennell, J.F., Roeder, J., Fritz, T.A., Grande, M., Kellett, B. and Kettmann, G.: 2001, 'Ring current ion composition during solar minimum and rising solar activity: Polar/CAMMICE/MICS results', J. Geophys. Res. 106, 19131-19147.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  81. Rairden, R.L., Frank, L.A. and Craven, J.D.: 1986, 'Geocoronal imaging with Dynamics Explorer', J. Geophys. Res. 91, p. 13,613.ADSGoogle Scholar
  82. Rasmussen, C.E., Guiter, S.M. and Thomas, S.G.: 1993, 'Two-dimensional model of the plasmasphere: refilling time constants', Planet. Space Sci. 41, 35-42.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  83. Reeves, G.D. and Henderson, M.G.: 2001, 'The storm-substorm relationship: Ion injections in geosynchronous measurements and composite energetic neutral atom images', J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5833-5844.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  84. Reeves, G.D. and Spence, H.E.: 2001, 'Charge exchange contribution to the decay of the ring current measured by energetic neutral atoms (ENAs)',J. Geophys. Res. 106, 1931-1937.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Reiff, P.H., Spiro, R.W. and Hill, T.W.: 1981, 'Dependence of polar cap potential drop of interplanetary parameters', J. Geophys. Res. 86, p. 7639.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Richmond, A.D. and Kamide, Y.: 1988, 'Mapping electrodynamic features of the high-latitude ionosphere from localized observations: Technique', J. Geophys. Res. 93, p.5741.ADSGoogle Scholar
  87. Ridley, A.J. and Liemohn, M.W.: 2002, 'A model-derived description of the penetration electric field', J. Geophys. Res. 107(A8), 1151, doi: 10.1029/2001JA000051.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Roelof, E.C.: 1987, 'Energetic neutral atom image of storm-time ring current', Geophys. Res. Lett. 14, 652-655.ADSGoogle Scholar
  89. Rowland, D.E. and Wygant, J.R.: 1998, 'Dependence of the large-scale, inner magnetospheric electric field on geomagnetic activity', J. Geophys. Res. 103, p. 14,959.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  90. Sazykin, S., Wolf, R.A., Spiro, R.W., Gombosi, T.I., DeZeeuw, D.L., and Thomsen, M.F.: 2002, 'Interchange instability in the inner magnetosphere associated with geosynchronous particle flux decreases', Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, doi: 10.1029/2001GL014416.Google Scholar
  91. Sckopke, N.: 1966, 'A general relation between the energy of trapped particles and the disturbance field near the Earth', J. Geophys. Res. 71, p. 3125.Google Scholar
  92. Siscoe, G.L., Erickson, G.M., Sonnerup, B.U., Maynard, N.C., Schoendorf, J.A., Siebert, K.D., Weimer, D.R., White, W.W. and Wilson, G.: 2002, 'Region 1 current-voltage relation: Test of Hill model, saturation, and dipole-strength scaling', J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: 10.1029/2001JA000109.Google Scholar
  93. Sugiura, M. and Kamei, T.: 1991, 'Equatorial Dst Index 1957-1986', IAGA Bulletin 40, ISGI, Saint-Maur-des-/fosses, France.Google Scholar
  94. Takahashi, S., Iyemori, T. and Takeda, M.: 1990, 'A simulation of the storm-time ring current', Planet. Space Sci. 38, 1133-1141.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  95. Thomsen, M.F., Borovsky, J.E., McComas, D.J. and Collier, M.R.: 1998, 'Variability of the ring current source population', Geophys. Res. Lett 25, 3481-3484.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  96. Tsurutani, B.T. and Gonzalez,W.D.: 1997, 'The interplanetary causes of magnetic storms: A review', in B.T. Tsurutani, W.D. Gonzalez, Y. Kamide and J.K. Arballo (eds.), Magnetic Storms, Geophys. Monogr. Ser. American Geophysical Union, 98 p. 77.Google Scholar
  97. Turner, N.E., Baker, D.N., Pulkkinen, T.I. and McPherron, R.L.: 2000, 'Evaluation of the tail current contribution to Dst', J. Geophys. Res. 105, p. 5431.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  98. Weimer, D.R.: 2001, 'An improved model of ionospheric electric potentials including substorm perturbations and application to the Geospace Environment Modeling November 24, 1996 event', J. Geophys. Res. 106, p. 407.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  99. Wolf, R.A., Freeman, Jr., J.W., Hausman, B.A., Spiro, R.W., Hilmer, R.V. and Lambour, R.L.: 1997, 'Modeling convection effects in magnetic storms', in B.T. Tsurutani, W.D. Gonzalez, Y. Kamide, and J.K. Arballo (eds.), Magnetic Storms, Geophys. Monogr. Ser., American Geophysical Union, 98, p. 161.Google Scholar
  100. Yeh, H.-C., Foster, J.C., Rich, F.J. and Swider, W.: 1991, 'Storm-time electric field penetration observed at mid-latitude', J. Geophys. Res. 96, p. 5707.ADSGoogle Scholar
  101. Young, D.T., Balsiger, H. and Geiss, J.: 1982, 'Correlations of magnetospheric ion composition with geomagnetic and solar activity', J. Geophys. Res. 87, 9077-9096.ADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Janet U. Kozyra
    • 1
  • Michael W. Liemohn
    • 1
  1. 1.Space Physics Research LaboratoryUniversity of MichiganAnn Arbor

Personalised recommendations