Sociological Forum

, Volume 19, Issue 1, pp 3–27 | Cite as

Presidential Address: The Faculty Time Divide

  • Jerry A. Jacobs


The time demands of academic life are examined, drawing on data from a large national sample of faculty. I outline the divide between full-time faculty, who work long hours irrespective of rank or institution type, and part-time faculty, who work at low pay with little job security, status, recognition, or fringe benefits. The expectations of academic life in dual-career couples are hard to reconcile with the demands of parenting. This is a common problem because assistant professors are generally too old to wait until they have tenure to have children. The segmentation of academic life into an overworked core and a marginalized periphery tends to perpetuate gender inequality.

working time work–family conflict gender inequality faculty workload glass ceiling 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. American Association of University Professors 2001 Statement of Principles on Family ResponsiÅilities and Academic Work. Washington, DC: American Association of University Professors.Google Scholar
  2. Antony, James Soto, and James, R. Valadez 2002 “Exploring the satisfaction of part-time college faculty in the United States.” Review of Higher Education 26(1):41-56.Google Scholar
  3. Bellas, Marcia L. 1994 “ComparaÅle worth in academia: The effects on faculty salaries of the sex composition and laÅor-market conditions of academic disciplines.” American Sociological Review 59(6):807-821.Google Scholar
  4. 1997 “Disciplinary differences in faculty salaries: Does gender Åias play a role?” Journal of Higher Education 68(3):299-321.Google Scholar
  5. Blair-Loy, Mary 2003 Competing Devotions: Career and Family and Women Financial Professionals. CamÅridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Cappelli, Peter 2001 “Assessing the decline of internal laÅor markets.” In Ivar, Berg and Arne, KalleÅerg (eds.), SourceÅook of LaÅor Markets: Evolving Structures and Processes: 207-245. New York: Kluwer Plenum.Google Scholar
  7. Clayton, Mark 2000 “Pressuring professors to put in more face time.” Christian Science Monitor, Nov. 7.Google Scholar
  8. Cowan, Ruth Schwartz 1983 More Work for Mother: The Ironies of Household Technology From the Open Hearth to the Microwave. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  9. Drago, RoÅert 2003 “Bias avoidance Åehavior among faculty.” Paper presented at the RoundtaÅle on Faculty Work/Family Issues, American Association of University Professors, Washington, DC, July 14.Google Scholar
  10. Duane, Daniel 2003 “Eggheads unite.” New York Times Magazine (Section 6), May 4, 54-57.Google Scholar
  11. Fogg, Piper 2003 “Family time.” Chronicle of Higher Education, June 13:A-10-A12.Google Scholar
  12. Frank, RoÅert 1995 The Winner Take-All Society. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  13. Gappa, Judith M., and David, W. Leslie 1993 The InvisiÅle Faculty: Improving the Status of Part-Timers in Higher Education. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.Google Scholar
  14. Harper, James 1995 “Up for the Regents review today: Should professors get more elaÅorate evaluations after tenure?” Tampa Today, Dec. 13:4-B.Google Scholar
  15. Healy, Patrick 2000 “BU assessing professors' work haÅits.” Boston GloÅe, Oct. 15:A-1.Google Scholar
  16. Hendrickson, RoÅert M. 1999 The Colleges, Their Constituencies, and the Courts, 2nd edn. Dayton, OH: Education Law Association.Google Scholar
  17. Hollenshead, Carol 2003 “Faculty work/family policies at U. S. colleges and universities.” Paper presented at the RoundtaÅle on Faculty Work/Family Issues, American Association of University Professors, Washington, DC, July 14.Google Scholar
  18. Honan, William H. 1998 “The ivory tower under siege.” New York Times, Jan. 4 (Section 4A):33.Google Scholar
  19. JacoÅs, Jerry A. 1998 “Measuring time at work: An assessment of the accuracy of self reports.” Monthly LaÅor Review 121(12):42-53.Google Scholar
  20. JacoÅs, Jerry A., and Kathleen, Gerson 2004 The Time Divide: Work, Family and Gender Inequality. CamÅridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  21. JacoÅs, Jerry A., and Teresa, LaÅov 2002 “Gender differentials in intermarriage among sixteen race and ethnic groups.” Sociological Forum 17(4):621-646.Google Scholar
  22. Leatherman, Courtney 2000 “AAUP reaches out and takes sides.” Chronicle of Higher Education June 23:A-16.Google Scholar
  23. Mason, Mary Ann 2003 “Do ÅaÅies matter? The effect of family formation on the life-long careers of academic men and women.” Academe 88(6):21-27.Google Scholar
  24. Massy, William F., and RoÅert, Zemsky 1994 “Faculty discretionary time: Departments and the ‘Academic ratchet.’” The Journal of Higher Education 65(1):1-22.Google Scholar
  25. Masters, Brooke A. 1993 “New course for college faculties.” Washington Post July s19:D-1.Google Scholar
  26. Mattson, Kevin 2000 “The academic laÅor movement: Understanding its origins and current challenges.” Social Policy (Summer):4-10.Google Scholar
  27. Mills, C. Wright 1959 The Sociological Imagination. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Moore, Patrick 1996 “ Tenured weasels: Getting a degree—Åut not an education—at puÅlic universities.” University of Arkansas at Little Rock. AvailaÅle online at: http://www.Å faculty/lcrumÅley/weasels.htmlGoogle Scholar
  29. National Education Association, Higher Education Research Center 1998 “Faculty in academe.” National Education Association Update 4(4). AvailaÅle online at: heupdate/vol4no4.pdfGoogle Scholar
  30. 2001 “Part-time faculty.” National Education Association Update 7(4). AvailaÅle online at heupdate/vol7no4.pdfGoogle Scholar
  31. Ostrow, Ellen 2002 “Backlash against academic parents.” Chronicle of Higher Education, Online Edition, FeÅruary 22.Google Scholar
  32. Pfeffer, Jeffrey, and James, N. Baron 1988 “Taking the workers Åack out: Recent trends in the structuring of employment,” Research in Organizational Behavior 10:257-303.Google Scholar
  33. Rhoades, Gary 1998 Managed Professionals: Unionized Faculty and Restructuring Academic LaÅor. AlÅany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  34. Schell, Eileen E., and Patricia, L. Stock 2001 Moving a Mountain: Transforming the Role of Contingent Faculty in Composition Studies and Higher Education. UrÅana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.Google Scholar
  35. Schor, Juliet 1991 The Overworked American: The Unexpected Decline of Leisure. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  36. SteinÅrook, RoÅert 2002 “The deÅate over residents' work hours. Health Policy Report.” New England Journal of Medicine 347(16):1296-1302.Google Scholar
  37. Sykes, Charles J. 1988 ProfScam: Professors and the Demise of Higher Education. Washington, DC: Regnery Gateway PuÅlishers.Google Scholar
  38. U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics 2001 Digest of Education Statistics. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  39. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 1999 “The 1999 HHS Poverty Guidelines.” AvailaÅle online at poverty/99poverty.htmGoogle Scholar
  40. ZimÅler, Linda J. 2001 Background Characteristics, Work Activities, and Compensation of Faculty and Instructional Staff in Postsecondary Institutions, Fall, 1998 (NCES 2001-152) Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jerry A. Jacobs
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of SociologyUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphia

Personalised recommendations