International Review of Education

, Volume 49, Issue 6, pp 563–584 | Cite as

Teachers' Work and Schooling in Bali

  • Pam Nilan


This study addresses educational reform in Indonesia with reference to one of the most important potential agents of change in any national system of schooling - its teachers. The empirical data on secondary teachers and trainee teachers used here are taken from a larger case study of the attitudes and opinions of stakeholders in the education system of North Bali. Secondary teachers in Bali, as elsewhere in Indonesia, are seriously underpaid, but not necessarily undervalued in the community. They take on other jobs to support themselves and their families, yet they do not lack commitment to the professional task of teaching. It is argued that financial pressure on teachers to find other sources of remuneration militates against their capacity to act as agents of change in the rapidly reforming Indonesian state. Furthermore, teaching is not often seen as a financially rewarding profession by a new generation of secondary-school graduates. The author recommends that teachers' salaries be raised and infrastructure support for schools increased.


Empirical Data Education System Educational Reform Large Case National System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adams, David, and Donald Chapman. 1998. Education and National Development in Asia: Trends and Issues. International Journal of Educational Research 29: 583–601.Google Scholar
  2. Bayhaqi, Akhmad. 2000. Social Aspects of Higher Education: The Case of Indonesia. Ekonomi dan Keuangan Indonesia 68: 215–252.Google Scholar
  3. Booth, Anne. 1999. Survey of Recent Developments. Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies 35: 3–38.Google Scholar
  4. Bourdieu, Pierre, and Jean-Claude Passeron. 1990. Reproduction in Education, Society and Culture. 2nd ed. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  5. Chapman, David. 2001. Assessing Directions for Educational Attainment Assistance.International Review of Education 47: 459–476.Google Scholar
  6. Cohen, Louis, and Lawrence Manion. 1994. Research Methods in Education. 4th ed. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  7. Connell, Robert. 1985. Teachers' Work. Sydney: George Allen and Unwin.Google Scholar
  8. Duggan, Stephen. 2001. Educational Reform in Vietnam: A Process of Change or Continuity? Comparative Education 37: 193–212.Google Scholar
  9. Errington, James. 1998. Shifting Languages: Interaction and Identity in Javanese Indonesia. Cambridge and Melbourne: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Fanany, Rebecca, and Z. Mawadi Effendi. 1999. Minangkabau Children to Indonesian Adults: Promoting Public Policy through Indonesian Language Teaching in West Sumatra. Crossroads: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 13: 105–113.Google Scholar
  11. Feridhanusetyawan, Tubagus. 1999. The Social Impact of the Indonesian Economic Crisis: What Do We Know? Paper presented to CAPSTRANS Seminar Series 14 July. Newcastle, Australia: University of Newcastle.Google Scholar
  12. Filmer, Dean, and David Lindauer. 2001. Does Indonesia have a 'Low Pay' Civil Service? Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies 37: 189–205.Google Scholar
  13. Gearing, John. 2000. Skill Deficit: Thailand's Poorly Trained Workforce Costs the Country Business. Asiaweek 26 (December 1): 47.Google Scholar
  14. Giroux, Henry. 1985. Postmodern Eucation. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  15. Hartanto, Edith. 2002. National Education: Untouched by Reforms. The Jakarta Post – Online Special. Jakarta. Scholar
  16. Hauser-Schäblin, Brigitta. 1997. Traces of Gods and Men: Temples and Rituals as Landmarks of Social Events and Processes in a South Bali Village. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer Verlag.Google Scholar
  17. Hobart, Angela, Urs Ramseyer, and Albert Leeman. 1996. The Peoples of Bali. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.Google Scholar
  18. International Development Network. 1999. Country Brief: Indonesia.Google Scholar
  19. Jones, Gavin. 2001. Schooling in Indonesia: Crisis-Related and Longer-Term Issues. Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies 37: 207–231.Google Scholar
  20. Kemmerer, Frances, Dean Nielsen, and Patrick Lynch. 1990. A Review of Teacher Education Issues in Indonesia. Jakarta: Center for Informatics, Office of Educational and Cultural Research and Development, Ministry of Education and Culture.Google Scholar
  21. King, Dwight. 1998. Reforming Basic Education and the Struggle for Decentralized Educational Administration in Indonesia. Journal of Political and Military Sociology 26: 83–95.Google Scholar
  22. Lanjouw, Peter, Menno Pradhan, Fadia Saadah, Haneen Sayed, and Robert Sparrow. 2001. Poverty, Education and Health in Indonesia: Who Benefits from Public Spending? Policy Research Working Paper 2739. The World Bank Development Research Group and East Asia and Pacific Region Poverty Team, Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Sector Unit. World Bank.Google Scholar
  23. Leigh, Barbara. 1991. Making the Indonesian State: The Role of School Texts. Review of Indonesian and Malaysian Affairs 25: 17–43.Google Scholar
  24. Malo, Manuela, Romli Suparman, Budi Indriyanto, and Williams Cummings. 1994. Strengthening Local Capacity: The Case of Basic Education in Indonesia. Tallahassee: Florida State University.Google Scholar
  25. Minichiello, Victor, R. Aroni, Eric Timewell, and Loris Alexander. 1995. In-Depth Interviewing. 2nd ed. Melbourne: Longman.Google Scholar
  26. Nilan, Pam, Nyoman Dantes, Dewa Komang Tantra, and I Gede Widja. 2002. Current Problems and Future Possibilities in Secondary School Education and Teacher Training in Singaraja, North Bali. Jurnal Pendidikan dan Pengajaran 3, TH. XXXV Juli: 124–137.Google Scholar
  27. Nye, Barbara, and Larry Hedges. 2001. The Influence of Elementary School Class Size on Ninth Grade Math Test Scores. Journal of Experimental Education 69: 218–233.Google Scholar
  28. Oey-Gardiner, Mayling. 1991. Education and Work in Indonesia's Economic Development. In: The Impacts of Education on Training and Work in Indonesia's Economic Development. DSP Research Paper No. 74, 34–67. Jakarta.Google Scholar
  29. Oey-Gardiner, Mayling. 1997. Educational Developments, Achievements and Challenges. In: Indonesia Assessment: Population and Human Resources, ed. by Gavin Jones and Terence Hull, 135–166. Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, in conjunction with the Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Singapore.Google Scholar
  30. Oey-Gardiner, Mayling. 2000. Schooling in a Decentralised Indonesia: New Approaches to Access and Decision-Making. Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies 36: 127–134.Google Scholar
  31. Oey-Gardiner, Mayling, and Peter Gardiner. 1997. The Education Explosion. In: Indonesia Assessment: Population and Human Resources, ed. by Gavin Jones and Terence Hull, 323–333. Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, in conjunction with the Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Singapore.Google Scholar
  32. Parker, Lynette. 1992. The Creation of Indonesian Citizens in Balinese Primary Schools. Review of Indonesian and Malaysian Affairs 26: 42–70.Google Scholar
  33. Parker, Lynette. 2000. The Introduction of Western-Style Education to Bali: Domination by Consent? In: To Change Bali: Essays in Honour of I Gusti Ngurah Bagus, ed. by Adrian Vickers and I Nyoman Darma Putra with Michele Ford. Denpasar: Bali Post, in conjunction with the Institute of Social Change and Critical Inquiry, University of Wollongong, Australia.Google Scholar
  34. PERC-Political and Economic Risk Consultancy. 2001. Education and Human Resource Variables. Business Environment Report, September 2001. Hong Kong: Political and Economic Risk Consultancy Ltd.Google Scholar
  35. Rais, Amien. 1999. Islam and Politics in Contemporary Indonesia. In: Post-Soeharto Indonesia: Renewal or Chaos?, ed. by Greg Forrester. Bathurst: Crawford House Publishing, and Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University.Google Scholar
  36. Tantra, Dewa Komang. 1999. Profil Guru di Era Reformasi, Makalah disampaikan dalam Forum. Diskusi Pendidikan se-Kodya Denpasar, Tanggal 13 Januari 1999 di SMUN 3. Denpasar.Google Scholar
  37. UNESCO. 2001a. Teachers for Tomorrow's Schools: Analysis of the World Education Indicators. OECD-UNESCO-UIS.Google Scholar
  38. UNESCO. 2001b. Executive Summary. Asia and Pacific Regional Framework for Action: Education for All: Guiding Principles, Specific Goals and Targets for 2015. Adopted by the Asia-Pacific Conference on EFA 2000 Assessment Bangkok, Thailand, 17–20 January 2000. UNESCO.Google Scholar
  39. Widja, I Gede. 1999. Kebhinekaan Masyarakat Indonesia dan Peranan Pendidikan nilai di Masa. Depan. Aneka Widya, STKIP Singaraja, No. 1 TH. XXXII Januari 1–7.Google Scholar
  40. Wilson, David. 1991. Reform of Technical-Vocational Education in Indonesia and Malaysia. Comparative Education 27: 207–221.Google Scholar
  41. World Bank. 1998. Education in Indonesia – From Crisis to Recovery. Report No. 18651-IND. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  42. World Bank. 2000. Indonesia: Seizing the Opportunity. Economic Brief for the Consultative Group. Jakarta: World Bank.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pam Nilan
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Social Sciences, Faculty of Education and ArtsUniversity of NewcastleNew South WalesAustralia

Personalised recommendations