Psychiatric Quarterly

, Volume 75, Issue 3, pp 279–294 | Cite as

A Culture of Enquiry: Research Evidence and the Therapeutic Community

  • Jan Lees
  • Nick Manning
  • Barbara Rawlings


This paper presents data from a systematic review and meta-analysis of 29 published studies of therapeutic community effectiveness using controls, including 8 randomised control trials. Meta-regressions suggest that the two types of therapeutic community, democratic and concept-based, and the age of the study, are the key sources of heterogeneity in the collection of studies analysed. Otherwise, heterogeneity is low and the meta-analysis confirms the effectiveness of therapeutic community treatment with overall summary log odds ratio for the 29 studies of −0.512 (95% ci −0.598 to −0.426).

systematic review meta-analysis therapeutic communities effectiveness evidence 


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Copyright information

© Human Sciences Press, Inc. 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jan Lees
    • 1
  • Nick Manning
    • 2
  • Barbara Rawlings
    • 3
  1. 1.Francis Dixon LodgeLeicesterUnited Kingdom
  2. 2.University of NottinghamUnited Kingdom
  3. 3.Department of SociologyUniversity of ManchesterUnited Kingdom

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