Population and Environment

, Volume 25, Issue 5, pp 475–499 | Cite as

Relative Deprivation and Migration in an Agricultural Setting of Nepal

  • Prem Bhandari
Article

Abstract

Are individuals from a relatively more deprived household more likely to migrate for work reasons compared to those from a relatively less deprived household? In this paper, I have empirically tested the relative deprivation hypothesis of migration put forth by Oded Stark and his colleagues. I used data from 1465 farming households in a rural agricultural setting of Nepal. The data was collected from the western Chitwan Valley in 1996. With these data, I used a logistic regression analysis technique to examine the influence of relative deprivation on migration. My findings support the hypothesis that individuals from households with relatively less access to cultivated land are more likely to migrate in search of work compared to those from a relatively well-off household with more land holdings. My findings can be useful in understanding the significance of relative deprivation in household migration decisions where access to cultivable land is declining due to land fragmentation as a result of population growth and land division by inheritance.

relative deprivation migration farming Chitwan Valley Nepal 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. Axinn, W. G., & Barber, J. S. (2001). Mass education and fertility transition. American Sociological Review, 66, 481–505.Google Scholar
  2. Barber, J. S., Shivakoti, G., Axinn, W. G., & Gajurel, K. (1997). Sampling strategies for rural settings: A detailed example from the Chitwan Valley Family Study, Nepal. Nepal Population Journal, 6, 193–203.Google Scholar
  3. Bilsborrow, R. E. (1981). Surveys of internal migration in low-income countries: The need for and content of community level variables. Geneva: International Labour Office.Google Scholar
  4. Blaikie, P. M., Cameron, J., & Seddon, J. (2000). The struggle for basic needs in Nepal. New Delhi: Adroit Publishers.Google Scholar
  5. Connell, J., Dasgupta, B., Laishley, R., & Lipton, M. (1976). Migration from rural areas: The evidence from village studies. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Crosby, F. J. (1982). Relative deprivation and working women. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  7. De Jong, G., Chamratrithirong, A., & Tran, Q. (2002). For better, for worse: Life satisfaction consequences of migration in Thailand. International Migration Review, 36, 838–863.Google Scholar
  8. De Jong, Gordon F. (2000). Expectations, gender, and norms in migration decision making. Population Studies, 54, 307–319.Google Scholar
  9. DHS/N (2002). Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2001. Calverton, Maryland, USA: Family Health Division, Ministry of Health, New Era, and ORC Macro.Google Scholar
  10. Faist, T. (1997). The crucial meso-level. In T. Hammar, G. Brochmann, K. Tamas, & T. Faist (Eds.), International migration, immobility and development: Multidisciplinary perspectives. Oxford, New York: BERG.Google Scholar
  11. Findlay, S. E. (1986). Rural development and migration: A study of family choices in the Philippines. Boulder and London: West View Press.Google Scholar
  12. Gajurel, K. P. (2001). Organization of agricultural production and human fertility. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation submitted to the Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology, The Pennsylvania State University, Pennsylvania.Google Scholar
  13. Grindle, M. (1988). Searching for rural development: labor migration and employment in Mexico. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Gurung, H. (1998). Nepal social demography and expressions. Kathmandu: New Era.Google Scholar
  15. Ives, D., Messerli, B. (1989). The Himalayan dilemma: Reconciling development and conservation. London and New York: The United Nations University: Routledge.Google Scholar
  16. Karan, P., & Ishii, H. (1996). Nepal: A Himalayan kingdom in transition. Tokyo, New York, Paris: United Nations University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Lee, E. S. (1966). A theory of migration, Demography, 3, 45–57.Google Scholar
  18. Lee, S. (1985). Why people intend to move: Individual and community level factors of outmigration in the Philippines. Boulder and London: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  19. Marquette, C. M., & Bilsborrow, R. (1994). Population and the environment in developing countries: literature survey and research bibliography. Preliminary, unedited version prepared for the Population Division of the Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy analysis, United Nations Secretariat. ESA/P/WP.123. Massey, D. S. (1990). Social structure, household strategies, and the cumulative causation of migration. Population Index, 56, 3–26.Google Scholar
  20. Massey, D. S., Arango, J., Hugo, G., Kouaouci, A., Pellegrino, A. & Taylor, J. E. (1993). Theories of International Migration: A review and appraisal. Population and Development Review, 19, 431–466.Google Scholar
  21. Matthews, S., Ganesh, A., Shivakoti, P. & Chhetri, N. (2000). Population forces and environmental change: observations from western Chitwan, Nepal. Society and Natural Resources, 13, 763–775.Google Scholar
  22. Menard, S. (1995). Applied logistic regression analysis. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications, International Educational and Professional Publisher.Google Scholar
  23. Montgomery, M. R., Gragnolati, M., Burke, K. A. & Paredes, E. (2000). Measuring Living Standards with Proxy Variables. Demography, 37, 155–174.Google Scholar
  24. Pampel, F. C. (2000). Logistic regression: A primer. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications, International Educational and Professional Publisher.Google Scholar
  25. Pebley, A., Goldman, N. & Rodriguez, G. (1996). Prenatal and delivery care and childhood immunization in Guatemala: Do family and community matter? Demography 33, 231–247.Google Scholar
  26. Shivakoti, G. P., Axinn, W. G., Bhandari, P. & Chhetri, N. (1999). The impact of community context on land use in an agricultural society. Population and Environment, 20, 191–213.Google Scholar
  27. Shrestha, N. R. (1990). Landlessness and migration in Nepal. Boulder, San Francisco, Oxford: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  28. Silwal, U. (1995). Population growth and agricultural change in Nepal. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd..Google Scholar
  29. Stark, O. (1984). Rural-to-urban migration in LDCs: A relative derivation approach. Economic Development and Cultural Change.Google Scholar
  30. Stark, O. (1991). The migration of labor. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers.Google Scholar
  31. Stark, O. & Bloom, D. E. (1985). The new economics of labor migration. American Economic Review 75 (2), 173–178.Google Scholar
  32. Stark, O. & Taylor, J. E. (1989). Relative deprivation and international migration. Demography, 26, 1–14.Google Scholar
  33. Stark, O. & Taylor, J. E. (1991). Relative deprivation and migration: theory, evidence, and policy implications. Policy, Research, and External Affairs Working Papers-656, World Bank.Google Scholar
  34. Stark, O., Yitzhaki, S. (1988). Labour migration as a response to relative deprivation. Journal of Population Economics, 1 (1), 57–70.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Human Sciences Press, Inc. 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Prem Bhandari
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural SociologyThe Pennsylvania State UniversityUSA

Personalised recommendations