Effects of Central Decisions on Local Livelihoods in Indonesia: Potential Synergies Between the Programs of Transmigration and Industrial Forest Conversion
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- O'Connor, C.M. Population and Environment (2004) 25: 319. doi:10.1023/B:POEN.0000036483.48822.2f
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In addition to well-documented negative effects (e.g., environmental degradation and ethnic conflict) Indonesia's central government programs of transmigration and industrial forest management subvert indigenous rights (even if unintentionally) through appropriation of forested land and migrant subsidies. Although central control can be an effective strategy for resource management, Indonesia's programs have undercut their own objectives and may interact synergistically to increase population pressure, reduce available land, and intensify land use conflicts on the outer islands. Empirical data are needed to evaluate the interactions between transmigration and forest conversion and to design appropriate management strategies that incorporate local as well as central controls.