Photonic Network Communications

, Volume 7, Issue 2, pp 131–144 | Cite as

Strategy for Dynamic Routing and Grooming of Data Flows into Lightpaths in New Generation Network Based on the GMPLS Paradigm

  • R. Sabella
  • P. Iovanna
  • G. Oriolo
  • P. D'Aprile


This paper reports on a novel strategy and related algorithm for realizing dynamic routing and grooming into wavelengths of data flows (label switched paths, LSPs) in new generation optical networks based on generalized MPLS (GMPLS). The method allows arbitrary granularities of LSPs. The new generation network is modeled as a multi-layer network consisting of an IP/MPLS layer and an optical layer. In particular, the proposed solution adopts a dynamic routing algorithm based on the Dijkstra algorithm, that makes use of a weight system, integrated with a suitable method for grooming LSPs into wavelengths based on the packing criterion, thus harmonizing the features of MPLS packet flows whose bandwidth vary in a continuous range of values, with the optical world, where the wavelength bandwidth ranges according to discrete values. The weight system is based on the concepts of least resistance routing that allows to evenly distribute the traffic at the MPLS layer, while packing improves the use of optical resources by favoring more filled wavelengths with respect to the emptier ones. To assess the validity of the proposed solution a simulation model has been realized. The results obtained by simulation show that the packing criterion allows reducing the refused bandwidth from two down to about four times, for a network load of 70% and 55%, respectively, when compared with the alternative method named spreading. The dependence of the proposed solution on bandwidth granularity has been also investigated. Moreover, in order to demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed routing solution, a comparison between the proposed strategy with relevant solutions known in the literature, based on either a single or multi-layer approach, is also reported. In order to perform the comparison, all the reference routing solutions that have been considered adopt the packing method for LSP grooming into the lightpaths. The results show that our solution outperforms the others in terms of amount of traffic that can be on-line accommodated. For instance, assuming a blocking probability of 10−3, the proposed solution is able to further reduce the refused bandwidth of the best routing algorithm considered in the analysis by a factor of three times, thanks to the knowledge of optical resource availability.

GMPLS traffic engineering routing grooming 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    M. Listanti, V. Eramo, R. Sabella, Architectural and technological issues for future optical internet networks, IEEE Communication Magazine, vol. 38, no. 9, (Sept. 2000), pp. 82–92.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    E. Rosen, et al., Multiprotocol label switching architecture, IETF-RFC 3031.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    A. Banerjee, et al., Generalized multiprotocol label switching: An overview of routing and management enhancements, IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 39, no. 1, (Jan. 2001), pp. 144–150.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    R. Dutta, N. Rouskas, Traffic grooming in WDM networks: Past and future, IEEE Network, vol. 16, no. 6, (Nov./Dec. 2002), pp. 46–56.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    W. Cho, R. V. Mukherjee, Improved approaches for cost-effective traffic grooming in WDM ring networks: ILP formulations and single-hop and multihop connections, IEEE/OSA Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 19, no. 11, (Nov. 2001), pp. 1645–1653.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    P. Iovanna, R. Sabella, M. Settembre, A traffic engineering system for multi-layer networks based on the GMPLS paradigm, IEEE Network, vol. 17, no. 2, (March 2003), pp. 28–37.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    S. Sabella, O. Razza, F. Conte, A multi-layer solution for paths provisioning in new generation optical/MPLS networks, IEEE/OSA Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 21, no. 5, (May 2003), pp. 1141–1155.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    D. Banerjee, B. Mukerjee, Wavelength-routed optical networks: linear formulation, resource budgeting tradeoff, and reconfiguration study, IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, vol. 8, no. 5, (Oct. 2000), pp. 598–607.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    T. Cinkler, D. Marx, C. L. Larsen, D. Fogaras, Heuristic algorithms for joint configuration of the optical and electrical layer in multi-hop wavelenght routing networks, IEEE INFOCOM 2000, (Tel Aviv, Israel, March 2000), vol. 2, pp. 1000–1009.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    R. Ramaswami, K. N. Sivarajan, Routing and wavelength assignment in all-optical networks, IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 3, no. 5, (1995), pp. 489–500.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    N. M. Bhide, K. M. Sivalingam, T. Fabry-Aztalos, Routing mechanisms employing adaptive weight functions for shortest path routing in optical WDM networks, Photonic Networks Communications, vol. 3, no. 3, (July 2001), pp. 227–236.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    M. Kodialam, T. V. Lakshman, Dynamic routing of bandwidth guaranteed tunnels with restoration, IEEE INFOCOM 2000, (Tel Aviv, Israel, March 2000), vol. 2, pp. 902–904.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    K. Kompella, Y. Rekhter, OSPF extensions in support of generalized MPLS, IETF draft, 〈draft-ietf-ccamp-ospf-gmpls-extensions-09.txt〉.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    L. Berger, Generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS) signaling resource reservation protocol-traffic engineering (RSVP-TE) extensions, IETF-RFC3473.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    B. Wen, K. M. Sivalingam, Routing, wavelength and time-slot assignment in time division multiplexed wavelength-routed optical WDM networks, IEEE INFOCOM 2002, (New York, NY, USA, April 2002) vol. 3, pp. 1442–1450.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    The National Science Foundation Network (NSFnet) Scholar
  17. [17]
    X. Xiao, A. Hannan, B. Bailey, L. Ni, Traffic engineering with MPLS in the internet, IEEE Network, vol. 14, no. 2, (March/April 2000), pp. 28–33.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Sabella
    • 1
  • P. Iovanna
    • 1
  • G. Oriolo
    • 2
  • P. D'Aprile
    • 3
  1. 1.Ericsson Lab ItalyResearch, Technology and Innovation AreaRomaItaly
  2. 2.University of Roma “Tor Vergata”RomaItaly
  3. 3.CoRiTel—Consorzio di Ricerca sulle TelecomunicazioniRomaItaly

Personalised recommendations