Advertisement

Plant and Soil

, Volume 259, Issue 1–2, pp 85–95 | Cite as

Total, and chemical fractions, of nitrogen and phosphorus in Eucalyptus seedling leaves: Effects of species, nursery fertiliser management and transplanting

  • Dugald C. Close
  • Chris L. Beadle
Article

Abstract

Total and nitrogen (N)- and phosphorus (P)-containing chemical fractions extracted in trichloroacetic acid (TCA) were assessed after nursery production (pre-planting) and during establishment of E. globulus Labill. and E. nitens (Deane and Maiden) Maiden seedlings in the field and following transfer of E. nitens seedlings from warm temperatures in a nursery to cool temperatures in a growth chamber. In field experiments, seedlings of both species were transplanted in spring onto a site at 350 m above sea level (asl) and E. nitens in early winter onto a site at 700 m asl. E. nitens seedlings received either high- or low-nutrient, treatments in the nursery before planting at 700 m asl or before transfer to the growth chamber. E. globulus had greater foliar concentrations of total N and P at planting than E. nitens after nursery production under the same fertiliser regime. In both field trials and the growth chamber experiment a decrease in N, and generally P, concentration in the leaves was observed between pre-planting and the first post-planting measurement. Decreased N was observed after a period of one week and 15 weeks at 350 and 700 m asl, respectively. E. globulus seedlings had higher concentrations of insoluble P complexes and lower concentrations of inorganic P than E. nitens. Increased levels of soluble N across treatments were associated with warm spring temperatures in both field experiments. N and P concentrations with time during establishment were similar in all experiments. This may be related to retranslocation associated with growth after transplanting. Despite differences in N and P concentrations, partitioning of total N to soluble (nitrate, ammonia and amino acid), nucleic acid and protein N and of total P to nucleic acid, sugar, inorganic and insoluble P were similar between E. nitens high- and low-nutrient treatments, and with time during establishment. The TCA method yielded insights additional to those of total N and P. This study showed that the plant nutrition associated with eucalypt seedling transplanting is highly dynamic and complex.

establishment nutrition transplanting trichloroacetic acid 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bennett L T Weston C J Judd T S Attiwill P M and Whiteman P H 1996 The effects of fertilisers on early growth and foliar nutrient concentrations of three plantation eucalypts on high quality sites in Gippsland, south-eastern Australia. For. Ecol. Man. 89, 213–226.Google Scholar
  2. Beadle C L 1993 Growth analysis. In Photosynthesis and Production in a Changing Environment: A Field and Laboratory Manual. Eds. D O Hall, J M O Scurlock, H R Bolhàr-Nordenkampf, R C Leegood and S P Long. pp. 36–45. Chapman and Hall, London.Google Scholar
  3. Brown K R Thompson W A Camm E L Hawkins B J Guy R D 1996 Effects of N addition rates on the productivity of Picea sitchensis, Thuja plicata and Tsuga heterophylla seedlings. Trees 10, 198–205.Google Scholar
  4. Chapin SFIII Follet J M O'Connor K F 1982 Growth, phosphate absorption, and phosphorus chemical fractions in two Chionochloa species. J. Ecology 70, 305–321.Google Scholar
  5. Chapin SFIII and Kedrowski R A 1983 Seasonal changes in nitrogen and phosphorus fractions and autumn retranslocation in evergreen and deciduous Taiga trees. Ecology 64, 376–391.Google Scholar
  6. Close D C Beadle C L Brown P H and Holz G K 2000 Cold-induced photoinhibition affects establishment of Eucalyptus nitens (Deane and Maiden) Maiden and Eucalyptus globulus Labill. Trees 15, 32–41.Google Scholar
  7. Dell B Malajczuk N and Grove T S 1982 Nutrient disorders in plantation eucalypts. The Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra, 97 pp.Google Scholar
  8. Evans J R 1983 Nitrogen and photosynthesis in the flag leaf of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Plant Physiol. 72, 297–302.Google Scholar
  9. Evans J R 1989 Photosynthesis and nitrogen relationships in leaves of C3 plants. Oecologia 78, 9–19.Google Scholar
  10. Evans J R Poorter H 2001 Photosynthetic acclimation of plants to growth irradiance: the relative importance of specific leaf area and nitrogen partitioning in maximizing carbon gain. Plant Cell Environ. 24, 755–767.Google Scholar
  11. Forest Research Institute 1987 Growing eucalypts in containers. What's New in Forest Research No. 80. pp. 1–4. Ministry of Forestry, Rotorua.Google Scholar
  12. Gleadow R M Foley W J Woodrow I E 1998 Enhanced CO2 alters the relationship between photosynthesis and defence in cyanogenic Eucalyptus caldocalyx F. Muell. Plant Cell Environ. 21, 12–22.Google Scholar
  13. Hooda N and Weston C J 1999 Influence of site and fertiliser addition on nutrient cycling in Eucalyptus globulus plantations in Gippsland, south-eastern Australia. I. Foliage and litter quality. Aust. J. Bot. 47, 189–206.Google Scholar
  14. Hurry V M Gardestrom P and Öquist G 1993 Reduced sensitivity to photoinhibition following frost hardening of winter rye is due to increased phosphate availability. Planta 190, 484–490.Google Scholar
  15. Judd T S Bennett L T Weston C J Attiwill P M and Whiteman P H 1996 The response of growth and foliar nutrients to fertilisers in young Eucalyptus globulus (Labill.) plantations in Gippsland, south-eastern Australia. For. Ecol. Man. 82, 87–101.Google Scholar
  16. Kedrowski R A 1983 Extraction and analysis of nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon fractions in plant material. J. Plant Nut. 6, 989–1011.Google Scholar
  17. Knight P J and Nicholas I D 1996 Eucalypt nutrition: New Zealand experience. In Nutrition of Eucalypts. Eds. P M Attiwill and M A Adams. pp. 275–302. CSIRO, Melbourne, Australia.Google Scholar
  18. Labate C A and Leegood R C 1990 Factors influencing the capacity for photosynthetic carbon assimilation in barley leaves at low temperatures. Planta 182, 492–500.Google Scholar
  19. Lowther J R 1980 Use of a single sulphuric acid-hydrogen peroxide digest for the analysis of Pinus radiata needles. Comm. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 11, 178–188.Google Scholar
  20. Malik B D and Timmer V R 1995 Interaction of nutrient-loaded black spruce seedlings with neighbouring vegetation in greenhouse environments. Can. J. For. Res. 25, 1017–1023.Google Scholar
  21. McAlister J A and Timmer V R. 1998 Nutrient enrichment of white spruce seedlings during nursery culture and initial plantation establishment. Tree Physiol. 18, 195–202.Google Scholar
  22. Miller B D and Timmer V R 1994 Steady-state nutrition of Pinus resinosa seedlings: response to nutrient loading, irrigation and hardening regimes. Tree Physiol. 14, 1327–1338.Google Scholar
  23. Miller B D and Timmer V R 1997 Nutrient dynamics and carbon partitioning in nutrient loaded Picea mariana [Mill.] B.S.P. seedlings during hardening. Scan. J. For. Res. 12, 122–129.Google Scholar
  24. Nambiar E K S and Fife D N 1987 Growth and nutrient retranslocation in needles of Radiata Pine in relation to nitrogen supply. Annals Bot. 60, 147–156.Google Scholar
  25. Nambiar E K S and Fife D N 1991 Nutrient retranslocation in temperate conifers. Tree Physiol. 9, 185–207.Google Scholar
  26. Polglase P J Comerford N B and Jokela E J 1992a Nitrogen and phosphorus release from decomposing needles of southern pine plantations. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 56, 914–920.Google Scholar
  27. Polglase P J Jokela E J and Comerford N B 1992b Phosphorus, nitrogen and carbon fractions in litter and soil of southern pine plantations. Soil Science Soc. Am. J. 56, 566–572.Google Scholar
  28. Sage R Pearcy R Seeman J R 1987 The nitrogen use efficiency of C3 and C4 plants. III. Leaf nitrogen effects on the activity of carboxylating enzymes in Chenopodium album (L.) and Amaranthus retroflexus (L.). Plant Physiol. 85, 355–359.Google Scholar
  29. SAS Institute Inc 1989 SAS/STAT User's Guide, Version 6. SAS Institute.Google Scholar
  30. Seeman J R Sharkey T D Wang J Osmond C B 1987 Environmental effects on photosynthesis, N-use efficiency and metabolite pools in leaves of sun and shade plants. Plant Physiol. 84, 796–802.Google Scholar
  31. Terashima I Evans J R 1988 Effects of light and nitrogen nutrition in spinach. Plant Cell Physiol. 29, 143–155.Google Scholar
  32. Tibbits W N Boomsma D B Jarvis S 1997 Distribution, biology, genetics and improvement programs for Eucalyptus globulus and E. nitens around the world, 24th Southern Forest Tree Improvement Conference, Southern Forest Tree Improvement Committee Eds., Orlando: New Orleans La, pp. 81–95.Google Scholar
  33. Timmer V R 1999 Vector competition analysis of black spruce seedlings responses to nutrient loading and vegetation control. Can. J. For. Res. 29, 474–486.Google Scholar
  34. Timmer V R and Munson A D 1991 Site-specific growth and nutrition of planted Picea mariana in the Ontario clay belt. IV. Nitrogen loading response. Can. J. For. Res. 21, 1058–1065.Google Scholar
  35. Van den Driessche R Webber J E 1975 Total and soluble nitrogen in Douglas fir in relation to plant nitrogen status. Can. J. For. Res. 5, 580–585.Google Scholar
  36. Warren C R Chen Z-L Adams M A 2000 Effect of N source on concentration of Rubisco in Eucalyptus diversicolor, as measured by capillary electrophoresis. Physiol. Plant, 110, 52–58.Google Scholar
  37. Woodward F I 1979 The differential temperature responses of the growth of certain plant species from different altitudes. II. Analyses of the control and morphology of leaf extension and specific leaf area of Phleum bertolonii D.C. and Phleum alpinum L. New Phytol, 82, 397–405.Google Scholar
  38. Zar J R 1996 Biostatistical Analysis. Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dugald C. Close
    • 1
    • 2
  • Chris L. Beadle
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Cooperative Research Centre for Sustainable Production ForestryHobart
  2. 2.Schools of Zoology, Agricultural and Plant ScienceUniversity of TasmaniaHobart
  3. 3.CSIRO Forestry and Forest ProductsHobart

Personalised recommendations