Advertisement

Pharmacy World and Science

, Volume 26, Issue 4, pp 221–226 | Cite as

Effects of a management technician on structured working in Dutch community pharmacies

  • Miranda C.M. PronkEmail author
  • Lyda Th.G. Blom
  • Ruud Jonkers
  • Albert Bakker
Article

Abstract

Methods: The intervention program provided the management technician with knowledge, tools and skills needed for the organisation of patient education activities in her community pharmacy. Twenty-eight pharmacies were selected for the study. After matching, each pharmacy was randomly assigned to either the experimental or control group. In the pharmacies of the experimental group, a technician was selected to become the management technician.

Main outcome measures: Pharmacy technicians were assessed by means of written questionnaires at baseline and immediately after the intervention (12 months). The outcomes were the variables that were directly targeted by the intervention, and included technicians’ perception of the availability of policy plans, support for patient education activities towards their implementation, evaluation, and provisions for continuity.

Results: After 12 months, the following indicators for structured working were noted to have increased in the experimental group compared to the control group: the technicians in the experimental group more often reported an awareness of policy plans, less lack of continuity of activities, support and evaluation for implementing patient education activities. We also observed that the control group had a higher baseline level and the effects on support and evaluation showed differences between pharmacies. The observed increases were more pronounced in pharmacies that had a higher exposure to the intervention, and in the case of support and evaluation relevant in this more exposed group.

Conclusion: We found indications for effects of the intervention program, especially in the pharmacies with increased exposure. However, results could be influenced by regression to the mean, as the control group started with a higher mean than the experimental group. We conclude that technicians’ participation in the management of patient education activities appears to be effective when she has a minimum of hours to spend on this task in her pharmacy.

Community pharmacy Community pharmacy services Patient education Pharmacy organisation Pharmacy technicians The Netherlands 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Van Mil FJW, Tromp DF, McElnay JC et al. Development of pharmaceutical care in The Netherlands: pharmacy's contemporary focus on the patient. J Am Pharm Assoc 1999; 39: 395–401.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Pronk M, Blom L, Jonkers R, Bakker A. Community pharmacy and patient-oriented activities: the Dutch case. Patient Edu Couns 2002; 46: 39–45.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mobach M. Thought and Action. Change to the Customer in Community Pharmacy Practice. Groningen: Rijksuniversiteit Groningen 1999.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Osman L, Bond CM, Mackenzie J, Williams S. Asthma advice giving by community pharmacists. Int J Pharm Pract 1999; 7: 12–7.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Narhi U, Airaksinen M, Enlund H. Do asthma patients receive sufficient information to monitor their disease-a nationwide survey in Finland. Pharm World Sci 2001; 23: 242–5.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Van Mil JFW. Pharmaceutical Care, the Future of Pharmacy. Theory, Research and Practice. Groningen, The Netherlands: Rijksuniversiteit Groningen 2000. ISBN 90-9013367-4.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Pronk MCM, Blom AThG, Jonkers R, Van Burg A. The diffusion process of patient education in Dutch community pharmacy: an exploration. Patient Edu Couns 2001; 42: 115–121.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Farris K, Schopflocher DP. Between intention and behavior: an application of community pharmacists' assessment of pharmaceutical care. Soc Sci Med 1999; 49: 55–66.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Holland RW, Nimmo CM. Transitions in pharmacy practice, part 3: effecting change-the three-ring circus. Am J Health Syst Pharm 1999; 56: 2235–41.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Holland RW, Nimmo CM. Transitions, part 1: beyond pharmaceutical care. Am J Health Syst Pharm 1999; 56: 1758–64.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Garside P. Organisational context for quality: lessons from the fields of organisational development and change management. Qual Health Care 1998; 7: S8–S15.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pronk MCM. Implementation of patient education in Dutch community pharmacies; development and evaluation of a new strategy. Utrecht, The Netherlands: University of Utrecht 2002.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rogers EM. Diffusion of Innovations. 4th edition New York: The Free Press 1995.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Stichting Farmaceutische Kengetallen. Farmacie in cijfers. Hoge werkdruk in apotheken [Pharmacy in figures. High workload in pharmacies.] Pharm Weekbl 2002; 137: 637.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    KNMP. Hoofdbestuur geeft visie op functiewaardering in de apotheek [The management board give their vision on job appreciation in the pharmacy.] Pharm Weekbl 2002; 137: 781.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Miranda C.M. Pronk
    • 1
    • 1
    Email author
  • Lyda Th.G. Blom
    • 1
  • Ruud Jonkers
    • 2
  • Albert Bakker
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pharmacoepidemiology and PharmacotherapyUtrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences (UIPS)UtrechtThe Netherlands
  2. 2.ResConHaarlemThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations