Pharmacy World and Science

, Volume 26, Issue 1, pp 18–25 | Cite as

Pharmaceutical care model for patients with type 2 diabetes: integration of the community pharmacist into the diabetes team – a pilot study

  • Joel Wermeille
  • Marion Bennie
  • Ian Brown
  • John McKnight



Objective: To evaluate the feasibility and impact of a structured approach for community pharmacist input as a member of the multidisciplinary team caring for patients with type-2 diabetes and health professional providing advice on medication. Methods: Prospective pretest-posttest single group study. Sixty-two patients on oral hypoglycaemic therapy, identified as regular customers of four Scottish (UK) community pharmacies, were recruited. Each patient underwent an initial assessment: review of medical general practice notes/community pharmacy PMR (Patient medication record) system and structured interview. Standardised documentation was completed, a pharmaceutical care plan (PCP) prepared, peer-reviewed and then discussed face-to-face with patients' GPs (general practitioners). A second (final) assessment was conducted 24 to 28 weeks from the initial interview.

Main outcome measures: Pharmaceutical care issues (PCIs) throughout study period; change in parameters from initial to final assessment: patient knowledge of oral hypoglycaemic and anti-hypertensive therapy; HbA1c; blood pressure; total cholesterol; medication compliance.

Results: A total of 178 PCIs were identified (mean [range] 2.9 [1–5] per patient) and categorised: drug therapy problems (n=76); monitoring (n=21); and patient knowledge (n=81). Drug therapy problems discussed with the GPs were agreed for 74 (97%) and resolved for 55 (72%) at final assessment. Biological outcome measures were assessed for 59 patients (3 drop-outs). A reduction (P < 0.05) in HbA1c, blood pressure and total cholesterol was observed over the study period. Patients knowledge was poor for oral hypoglycaemic therapy but improved (initial-51%, final-72%, P < 0.05).

Conclusion: This study demonstrated a feasible pharmaceutical care model for diabetes patients in an European country. The results have shown the pharmacist to be effective and well accepted by GPs and patients.

Anti-hypertensive Clinical pharmacy service Community pharmacy service Diabetes mellitus type-2 Hypoglycemic agents Multi-disciplinary Patient education Pharmaceutical care Scotland 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joel Wermeille
    • 1
  • Marion Bennie
    • 2
  • Ian Brown
    • 2
  • John McKnight
    • 2
  1. 1.Pharmacy ServiceHMoutierSwitzerland
  2. 2.Lothian Pharmacy Practice Unit, Department of Public Health and Health Policy, Lothian Health, Edinburgh, UK and Department of Pharmaceutical SciencesUniversity of StrathclydeGlasgowUK

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