Pharmaceutical Research

, Volume 21, Issue 7, pp 1294–1302 | Cite as

P-glycoprotein Expression, Localization, and Function in Sandwich-Cultured Primary Rat and Human Hepatocytes: Relevance to the Hepatobiliary Disposition of a Model Opioid Peptide

  • Keith A. Hoffmaster
  • Ryan Z. Turncliff
  • Edward L. LeCluyse
  • Richard B. Kim
  • Peter J. Meier
  • Kim L. R. BrouwerEmail author


Purpose. The isolation of hepatocytes from intact liver involves collagenase digestion of the tissue, resulting in loss of cell polarization and functional vectorial excretion. These studies examined re-polarization, localization of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) to the canalicular domain of the hepatocyte, and re-establishment of vectorial transport in sandwich-cultured (SC) rat and human primary hepatocytes.

Methods. Protein localization and expression were determined in SC hepatocytes by confocal microscopy and Western blotting, respectively. Transporter function was evaluated by measuring [D-penicillamine2,5]enkephalin (3H-DPDPE) and 5 (and 6)-carboxy-2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein (CDF) biliary excretion in SC hepatocytes.

Results. P-gp and the canalicular marker protein dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) co-localized by Day 3 and Day 6 in SC rat hepatocytes and SC human hepatocytes, respectively, consistent with canalicular network formation visualized by light microscopy. Co-localization of multidrug resistance associated protein 2 (MRP2) and P-gp in SC human hepatocytes was observed on Day 6 in culture. Expression levels of P-gp increased slightly in both species over days in culture; similar expression was observed for MRP2 in SC human hepatocytes. Oatp1a1 expression in SC rat hepatocytes was maintained over days in culture, whereas Oatp1a4 expression decreased. OATP1B1 expression decreased slightly on Day 3 in SC human hepatocytes. OATP1B3 expression was constant in SC human hepatocytes. In vitro biliary excretion of the opioid peptide 3H-DPDPE correlated with the proper localization of canalicular proteins in both species. Excretion of CDF in SC human hepatocytes confirmed network formation and MRP2 function.

Conclusions. These studies indicate that SC hepatocytes repolarize and traffic functional canalicular transport proteins to the appropriate cellular domain.

cell culture biliary excretion drug transport drug transport models hepatocytes P-glycoprotein 


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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Keith A. Hoffmaster
    • 1
  • Ryan Z. Turncliff
    • 1
  • Edward L. LeCluyse
    • 1
  • Richard B. Kim
    • 2
  • Peter J. Meier
    • 3
  • Kim L. R. Brouwer
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Division of Drug Delivery and DispositionSchool of Pharmacy, University of North CarolinaChapel HillUSA
  2. 2.Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Departments of Medicine and PharmacologyVanderbilt University School of MedicineNashvilleUSA
  3. 3.Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of MedicineUniversity HospitalZurichSwitzerland

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