Advertisement

Natural Hazards

, Volume 31, Issue 1, pp 233–252 | Cite as

Regional Considerations of Coastline Change, Tsunami Damage and Recovery along the Southern Coast of the Bay of Izmit (The Kocaeli (Turkey) Earthquake of 17 August 1999)

  • Richard M. Rothaus
  • Eduard Reinhardt
  • Jay Noller
Article

Abstract

Co-seismic phenomena along the south coastline included liquefaction, subsidenceand tsunami. Construction on areas composed of fluvial and alluvial sediments aswell as unconsolidated fill increased the risk by creating potential for amplificationof seismic waves. Cyclic mobility liquefaction was common along the coastline, andlevel-ground liquefaction was observed. Flow liquefaction is held forth as a possibilityin the Değirmendere submarine landslide. Damage to structures was markedly more in areas of unconsolidated sediments. One or more tsunami struck immediately after the event; the uniformity of tsunami impact indicating a wave coming from 310° suggests that submarine faulting was the major source of tsunami. Over 800,000 m2 of subsidence resulted from sediment slumping, fault controlled subsidence, and possibly post-liquefaction sediment compaction. After a brief period of post-event abandonment, reclamation and use of coastal areas is well underway. This creates a tension between human desires pushing for quick and inexpensive re-inhabitation of the coastal areas, and the needs for zoning and building codes for risk reduction. In this high-risk area suchcontrary cultural mandates cannot yield ideal results. It is suggested that an alternativemodel of immediate post-event creation of parks and natural areas that would yield benefit is preferable in coastal areas rather than the enforcement approach currently favored.

Izmit Bay liquefaction tsunami subsidence risk management zoning building codes 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alpar, B., Yalçiner, A. C., Imamura, F., and Synolakis, C. E.: 2001, Determination of probable underwater failures and modeling of tsunami propagation in the sea of Marmara, In: ITS 2001 Proceedings, 535–543.Google Scholar
  2. Altinok, Y., Alpar, B., Ersoy, S., and Yalçiner, A.: 1999, Tsunami generation of the Kocaeli earthquake (August 17th, 1999) in Izmit Bay: coastal observations, bathymetry and seismic data, Turkish Journal of Marine Science 5, 131–148.Google Scholar
  3. Altinok, Y., Tinti, S., Alpar, B., Yalçiner, A. C., Ersoy, S., Bortolucci, E., and Armigliato, A.: 2001, The tsunami of August 17, 1999 in Izmit Bay, Turkey, Natural Hazards 24, 133–146.Google Scholar
  4. Ambraseys, N. N.: 1988, Engineering seismology, Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics 17, 1–105.Google Scholar
  5. Barka, A., Kozaci, Ö., Akyüz, S., and Altunel, E. (eds): 2000a, The 1999 Izmit and Düzce Earthquakes: Preliminary Results, Istanbul Technical University.Google Scholar
  6. Barka, A., Akyüz, S., Altunel, E., Sunal, G., Çakir, Z., Dikba, A., Yerli, B., Rockwell, T., Dolan, J., Hartleb, R., Dawson, T., Fumal, T., Langridge, R., Stenner, H., Christofferson, S., Tucker, A., Armijo, R., Myer, B., Chabalier, J. B., Lettis, W., Page, W., and Bachhuber, J.: 2000b, The August 17, 1999 Izmit earthquake, M = 7.4, eastern Marmara region, Turkey: study of surface rupture and slip distribution, In: Kozaci, Ö., Akyüz, S., and Altunel, E. (eds): 2000a, The 1999 Izmit and Düzce Earthquakes: Preliminary Results, Istanbul Technical University. Barka (2000a), 15–30.Google Scholar
  7. Committee on Economic Affairs and Development: 1999, Economic consequences of the recent earthquakes in Turkey and Greece, Council of Europe Document 8601.Google Scholar
  8. Hubert-Ferrari, A., Barka, A., Jacques, E., Nalbant, S. S., Meyer, B., Armijo, R., Tapponnier, P., and King, G. C.: 2000, Seismic hazard in the Marmara Sea region following the 17 August 1999 Izmit earthquake, Nature 404, 269–273.Google Scholar
  9. Kramer, S. L.: 1996, Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  10. Lander, J. F. and Yeh, H. (eds): 1995, Report of the International Tsunami Measurements Workshop, Estes Park, Colorado, USA.Google Scholar
  11. Lettis, W., Bachhuber, J., Barka, A., Witter, R., and Brankman, C: 2000, Surface fault rupture and segmentation during the Kocaeli earthquake, In: Kozaci, Ö., Akyüz, S., and Altunel, E. (eds): 2000a, The 1999 Izmit and Düzce Earthquakes: Preliminary Results, Istanbul Technical University. Barka (2000a) 31–54.Google Scholar
  12. Özerdem, A.: 1999, Tiles, taps and earthquake-proofing: lessons for disaster management in Turkey, Environment and Urbanization 11, 177–179.Google Scholar
  13. Özerdem, A. and Barakat, S.: 2000, After the Marmara earthquake: lessons for avoiding short cuts to disaster, Third World Quarterly 21, 425–439.Google Scholar
  14. Papadopoulos, G. A. and Lefkopoulos, G.: 1993, Magnitude-distance relations for liquefaction in soil from earthquakes, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 83, 925–938.Google Scholar
  15. Parsons, T., Toda, S., Stein, R.S., Barka, A., and Dieterich, J.: 2000, Heightened odds of large earthquakes near Istanbul: an interaction-based probability calculation, Science 288, 661–665.Google Scholar
  16. United Nations Disaster Assessment and Coordination, 1999: Turkey Earthquake, August 1999, UNDAC Mission, emergency aspects of environmental impacts, United Nations Office For The Coordination Of Humanitarian Affairs.Google Scholar
  17. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS): 2000, Implications for Earthquake Risk Reduction in the United States from the Kocaeli, Turkey, Earthquake of August 17, 1999, USGS Circular 1193, URL: http://geology.cr.usgs.gov/pub/circulars/c1193/index.html.Google Scholar
  18. Yalciner, A. C., Synolakis, C. E., Alpar, B., Borrero, J. C., Altinok, Y., Imamura, F., Tinti, S., Ersoy, S., Kuram, U., Pamukcu, S. and Kanoglu, U.: 2001, Field surveys and modeling of the 1999 Izmit tsunami, In: ITS 2001 Proceedings, 557–563.Google Scholar
  19. Youd, T. L. and Hoose, S. N.: 1977, Liquefaction susceptibility and geologic setting, In: Proceedings of the sixth world conference on earthquake engineering, New Delhi, India, v. 3, 2189–2194.Google Scholar
  20. Youd, T. L.: 1991, Mapping of earthquake-induced liquefaction for seismic zonation, In: Proceeding, 4th International Conference on Seismic Zonation, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, Stanford University, v. 1, 111–147.Google Scholar
  21. Youd, T. L.: 1992, Liquefaction, ground failure, and consequent damage during the 22 April 1991 Costa Rica earthquake, In: Proceedings of the NSF/UCR U.S.-Costa Rica Workshop on the Costa Rica Earthquakes of 1990–1991: Effects on Soils and Structures, Oakland, California: Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard M. Rothaus
    • 1
  • Eduard Reinhardt
    • 2
  • Jay Noller
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of HistorySt. Cloud State UniversitySt. CloudUSA
  2. 2.School of Geography and Geology, McMaster UniversityUSA
  3. 3.Department of Crop and Soil ScienceOregon State UniversityEugeneUSA

Personalised recommendations