Natural Hazards

, Volume 31, Issue 1, pp 233–252 | Cite as

Regional Considerations of Coastline Change, Tsunami Damage and Recovery along the Southern Coast of the Bay of Izmit (The Kocaeli (Turkey) Earthquake of 17 August 1999)

  • Richard M. Rothaus
  • Eduard Reinhardt
  • Jay Noller


Co-seismic phenomena along the south coastline included liquefaction, subsidenceand tsunami. Construction on areas composed of fluvial and alluvial sediments aswell as unconsolidated fill increased the risk by creating potential for amplificationof seismic waves. Cyclic mobility liquefaction was common along the coastline, andlevel-ground liquefaction was observed. Flow liquefaction is held forth as a possibilityin the Değirmendere submarine landslide. Damage to structures was markedly more in areas of unconsolidated sediments. One or more tsunami struck immediately after the event; the uniformity of tsunami impact indicating a wave coming from 310° suggests that submarine faulting was the major source of tsunami. Over 800,000 m2 of subsidence resulted from sediment slumping, fault controlled subsidence, and possibly post-liquefaction sediment compaction. After a brief period of post-event abandonment, reclamation and use of coastal areas is well underway. This creates a tension between human desires pushing for quick and inexpensive re-inhabitation of the coastal areas, and the needs for zoning and building codes for risk reduction. In this high-risk area suchcontrary cultural mandates cannot yield ideal results. It is suggested that an alternativemodel of immediate post-event creation of parks and natural areas that would yield benefit is preferable in coastal areas rather than the enforcement approach currently favored.

Izmit Bay liquefaction tsunami subsidence risk management zoning building codes 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard M. Rothaus
    • 1
  • Eduard Reinhardt
    • 2
  • Jay Noller
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of HistorySt. Cloud State UniversitySt. CloudUSA
  2. 2.School of Geography and Geology, McMaster UniversityUSA
  3. 3.Department of Crop and Soil ScienceOregon State UniversityEugeneUSA

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