Networks and Spatial Economics

, Volume 4, Issue 2, pp 161–179 | Cite as

A Genetic Algorithm Based Approach to Optimal Toll Level and Location Problems

  • Simon Shepherd
  • Agachai Sumalee


The derivative based approach to solve the optimal toll problem is demonstrated in this paper for a medium scale network. It is shown that although the method works for most small problems with only a few links tolled, it fails to “converge” for larger scale problems. This failure led to the development of an alternative genetic algorithm (GA) based approach for finding optimal toll levels for a given set of chargeable links. A variation on the GA based approach is used to identify the best toll locations making use of “location indices” suggested by Verhoef (2002).

Bilevel optimisation second-best tolls optimal tolls optimal location genetic algorithms 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of LeedsInstitute for Transport StudiesUK

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