New Forests

, Volume 28, Issue 2–3, pp 207–215 | Cite as

Gmelina arborea– a viable species for smallholder tree farming in Indonesia?

  • James M. Roshetko
  • Mulawarman
  • Pratiknyo Purnomosidhi


Across Indonesia there are millions of hectares of degraded land in need of rehabilitation. There is interest at both the government and farmer level of converting some of these lands to more productive use, including growing trees. Smallholders often practice tree farming to generate income and traditionally cultivate a wide range of tree species in mixed agroforestry systems. Grown to satisfy both household needs and market demand, smallholder-produced timber might play a potentially important role in local markets. Tectona grandis, Swietenia macrophylla, and Paraserianthes falcataria are common smallholder timber species. Gmelina arborea (gmelina) is easy to cultivate and grow at the smallholder level. It has been widely grown in plantations in South and Southeast Asia, including Indonesia. However, gmelina is not yet a priority species with Indonesian smallholder farmers. Experience indicates that marketable small-diameter gmelina timbers can be produced in 7–10 years and that price compares well with that of Paraserianthes, the most widely grown short-rotation smallholder timber species in Indonesia. Most gmelina seed originates in Central Java, from where large quantities of seed are shipped annually to other parts of Indonesia. This seed is of uncertain quality, as seed sources are unidentified and seed collection guidelines are not used. It is recommended to establish smallholder plantations with seed of known quality. Gmelina holds promise as one component for a multi-species smallholder tree farming systems to produce short-rotation timbers for household use and local markets.

Palabras clave: Agroforestales, Ensayos agrícolas, Producción de madera por pequeños propietarios, Rehabilitación de tierras, Selección de especies

Resumen. A través de Indonesia, hay millones de hectáreas de terrenos degradados los cuales necesitan ser rehabilitados. Existe interés tanto al nivel gubernamental como al nivel de los agricultores, en convertir algunos de estos terrenos en sitios productivos, incluyendo la producción de árboles. Con frecuencia, para generar ingresos, los pequeños propietarios plantan árboles para cosecha y tradicionalmente cultivan un amplio rango de especies de árboles, en una variedad de sistemas agro-forestales. La madera de los pequeños propietarios, producida para satisfacer tanto las necesidades hogareñas como las demandas del mercado, puede jugar un papel potencialmente importante en los mercados locales. La Tectona grandis, la Swietenia macrophylla, y el Paraserianthes falcataria son especies comúnmente producidas por los agricultores. La Gmelina arborea (gmelina) es una especie de fácil cultivo y crecimiento al nivel de los pequeños propietarios, y se ha venido produciendo ampliamente en el sur, y el suroriente de Asia, incluyendo Indonesia. Sin embargo, la gmelina no es aún una especie de prioridad para los pequeños agricultores de Indonesia. La experiencia indica, que la madera de gmelina de pequeño diámetro puede salir al mercado en un período de 7–10 años y que el precio de esta madera es comparable con la madera del Paraserianthes, la cual es la especie de corta rotación más ampliamente utilizada por los pequeños propietarios en Indonesia. La mayoría de la semilla de la gmelina proviene de Java Central, de donde se envían anualmente grandes cantidades de semilla a otras partes de Indonesia. Esta semilla es de calidad incierta, ya que las fuentes de semilla no están identificadas y no se utilizan normas de colección de semillas. Se recomienda que las plantaciones de los pequeños propietarios sean establecidas con semilla de calidad conocida. La gmelina es prometedora como parte del sistema de cultivo de árboles de especies múltiples de los pequeños propietarios, para producir madera de corta rotación para ser utilizada localmente y enviada a mercados locales.

Agroforestry Farmer trials Land rehabilitation Smallholder timber production Species selection 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • James M. Roshetko
    • 1
  • Mulawarman
    • 2
  • Pratiknyo Purnomosidhi
    • 3
  1. 1.Winrock International and the International Centre for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF)Jl. CIFORSindang BarangIndonesia(e-mail
  2. 2.World Agroforestry centre, ICRAF, Southeast Asia Regional OfficeInternational centre for Research in Agroforestry, Jl. CIFORSindang BarangIndonesia
  3. 3.ICRAFKotabumiLampungIndonesia

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