Advances in the Modelling of Motorcycle Dynamics
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Starting from an existing advanced motorcycle dynamics model, which allows simulation of reasonably general motions and stability, modal and response computations for small perturbations from any trim condition, improvements are described. These concern (a) tyre/road contact geometry, (b) tyre shear force and moment descriptions, as functions of load, slip and camber, (c) tyre relaxation properties, (d) a new analytic treatment of the monoshock rear suspension mechanism with sample results, (e) parameter values describing a contemporary high performance machine and rider, (f) steady-state equilibrium and power checking and (g) steering control. In particular, the “Magic Formula” motorcycle tyre model is utilised and complete sets of parameter values for contemporary tyres are derived by identification methods. The new model is used for steady turning, stability, design parameter sensitivity and response to road forcing calculations. The results show the predictions of the model to be in general agreement with observations of motorcycle behaviour from the field and they suggest that frame flexibility remains an important design and analysis area, despite improvements in frame designs over recent years. Motorcycle rider parameters have significant influences on the behaviour, with results consistent with a commonly held view, that lightweight riders are more likely to suffer oscillation problems than heavyweight ones.
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