Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy

, Volume 7, Issue 1, pp 55–69 | Cite as

Scientific Contribution. Empirical data and moral theory. A plea for integrated empirical ethics

  • Bert MolewijkEmail author
  • Anne M. Stiggelbout
  • Wilma Otten
  • Heleen M. Dupuis
  • Job Kievit


Ethicists differ considerably in their reasons for using empirical data. This paper presents a brief overview of four traditional approaches to the use of empirical data: “the prescriptive applied ethicists,” “the theorists,” “the critical applied ethicists,” and “the particularists.” The main aim of this paper is to introduce a fifth approach of more recent date (i.e. “integrated empirical ethics”) and to offer some methodological directives for research in integrated empirical ethics. All five approaches are presented in a table for heuristic purposes. The table consists of eight columns: “view on distinction descriptive-prescriptive sciences,” “location of moral authority,” “central goal(s),” “types of normativity,” “use of empirical data,” “method,” “interaction empirical data and moral theory,” and “cooperation with descriptive sciences.” Ethicists can use the table in order to identify their own approach. Reflection on these issues prior to starting research in empirical ethics should lead to harmonization of the different scientific disciplines and effective planning of the final research design. Integrated empirical ethics (IEE) refers to studies in which ethicists and descriptive scientists cooperate together continuously and intensively. Both disciplines try to integrate moral theory and empirical data in order to reach a normative conclusion with respect to a specific social practice. IEE is not wholly prescriptive or wholly descriptive since IEE assumes an interdepence between facts and values and between the empirical and the normative. The paper ends with three suggestions for consideration on some of the future challenges of integrated empirical ethics.

applied ethics descriptive-prescriptive empirical data empirical ethics fact-value integrated empirical ethics methodology moral theory social sciences types of normativity 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bert Molewijk
    • 1
    Email author
  • Anne M. Stiggelbout
    • 1
  • Wilma Otten
    • 1
  • Heleen M. Dupuis
    • 1
  • Job Kievit
    • 1
  1. 1.Departments of Medical Decision Making & Medical EthicsLeiden University Medical CentreLeidenThe Netherlands

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