Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

, Volume 255, Issue 1–2, pp 87–92 | Cite as

The gender differences in health effects of environmental cadmium exposure and potential mechanisms

  • Muneko Nishijo
  • Soisungwan Satarug
  • Ryumon Honda
  • Ikiko Tsuritani
  • Keiko Aoshima


On a viewpoint of gender differences in Cd body burden and its health effects, we reviewed the population-based research including our own which conducted in Japan, Thailand, Australia, Poland, Belgium and Sweden to assess health effects of human exposure to environmental cadmium and their potential mechanisms. As a result, six risk factors in Cd health effects in women have been identified; (1) more serious type of renal tubular dysfunction, (2) difference in calcium metabolism and its regulatory hormones, (3) kidney sensitivity; difference in P450 phenotype, (4) pregnancy, (5) body iron store status, and (6) genetic factors. Further studies of Cd toxicity targeted to women would now appear necessary.

cadmium gender difference renal tubular dysfunction kidney sensitivity bone injury 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muneko Nishijo
    • 1
  • Soisungwan Satarug
    • 2
  • Ryumon Honda
    • 3
  • Ikiko Tsuritani
    • 3
  • Keiko Aoshima
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Public HealthKanazawa Medical UniversityJapan
  2. 2.National Research Center for Environmental ToxicologyBrisbaneAustralia
  3. 3.Department of HygieneKanazawa Medical UniversityJapan

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