Journal of World Prehistory

, Volume 18, Issue 1, pp 1–55 | Cite as

The Prehistory of the Tibetan Plateau to the Seventh Century A.D.: Perspectives and Research from China and the West Since 1950

  • Mark Aldenderfer
  • Zhang Yinong


Until recently, there has been no sense of a Tibetan prehistory. Beginning in the 1970s, however, Chinese archaeologists began to systematically explore the plateau, and began to draw an outline of the deep Tibetan past. The pace of research accelerated rapidly in the 1990s, which brought this outline into sharper focus. This paper reviews what is known of Tibetan prehistory until the seventh century A.D., when the Tibetan empire was established. Topics covered in this paper include a consideration of the antiquity of a human presence upon the plateau, changing adaptive strategies following the end of the glacial epoch, the advent of the Neolithic, and the emergence of social and political complexity. Despite significant advances in our knowledge of the Tibetan past, much work remains to be done before models of process can be examined in any detail.

Tibetan plateau prehistory adaptation to high elevation China 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aldenderfer, M. (1998). Montane Foragers: Asana and the South-Central Andean Archaic,Uni-versity of Iowa Press, Iowa City.Google Scholar
  2. Aldenderfer, M. (1999). The Pleistocene/Holocene transition in transition in Peru and its ef-fects upon the human use of the landscape. Quaternary Int. 53/54: 11–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aldenderfer, M. (2001a). Piyang: A 10th/11th C A.D. Tibetan Buddhist temple and monastic complex in far western Tibet. Archaeol., Ethnol., Anthropol. Eurasia 4(8): 138–146.Google Scholar
  4. Aldenderfer, M. (2001b). Roots of Tibetan Buddhism. Archaeology 54(3): 610–612.Google Scholar
  5. Aldenderfer, M. (2003). Moving up in the world. Am. Sci. 91: 542–549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Aldenderfer, M. (2004a). Domestic rdo-ring? A new class of standing stone from the Tibetan plateau. Tibet Journal 28: 1–23.Google Scholar
  7. Aldenderfer (2004b). Early human occupations of the Tibetan plateau and Andean altiplano. Paper presented at the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Seattle, WA.Google Scholar
  8. Aldenderfer, M. (in press). Archaeology and ethnicity in far western Tibet: The evidence from Dindun. In Heller, A. (ed.), Proceedings of the Tenth IATS, Brill, Leiden.Google Scholar
  9. Aldenderfer, M., and Moyes, H. (2004). Excavations at Dindun, a pre-Buddhist village site in far western Tibet. In Huo, W., and Li, Y. (eds.), Essays of the International Conference on Tibetan Archaeology and Art, Center for Tibetan Studies, Sichuan Union University, Chengdu, China, pp. 47–69.Google Scholar
  10. An, Z. et al.(1982). Paleoliths and microliths from Shenja and Shuanghu, northern Tibet. Curr. Anthropol. 23(5): 493–499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Aufschneider, P. (1956). Prehistoric sites discovered in inhabited regions of Tibet. East West 7: 74–88.Google Scholar
  12. Beckwith, C. (1987). The Tibetan Empire in Central Asia, Princeton University Press, Prince-ton, NJ.Google Scholar
  13. Bellezza, J. (2000). Buddhist archaeological sites in northern Tibet: An introductory report on the types of monuments and related literary and oral historical sources. Kailash 19(1/2): 1–142.Google Scholar
  14. Bellezza, J. (2001). Antiquties of Northern Tibet, Pre-Buddhist Archeological Discoveries on the High Plateau, Findings of the Changthang Circuit Expedition, 1999, Adroit Publishers, Delhi.Google Scholar
  15. Bellezza, J. (2002). Antiquities of Upper Tibet: Pre-Buddhist Archaeological Sites on the High Plateau. Findings of the Upper Tibet Circumnavigation Expedition, 2000, Adroit Publish-ers: Delhi.Google Scholar
  16. Brantingham, P., Krivoshapkin, A., Li, J.,and, Tserendagva, Y. (2001a). The initial Upper Paleolithic in northeast Asia. Curr. Anthropol. 42: 735–747.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brantingham, J., Ma, H., Olsen, J., Gao, X., Madsen, D., and Rhode, D. (2003). Speculation on the timing and nature of Late Pleistocene hunter-gatherer colonization of the Tibetan Plateau. Chin. Sci. Bull. 48(14): 1510–1516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brantingham, P., Olsen, J., and Schaller, G. (2001b). Lithic assemblages from the Chang Tang region, northern Tibet. Antiquity 75: 319–327.Google Scholar
  19. Bronk Ramsey, C. (2002). OxCal Program v3.8. Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford.Google Scholar
  20. Brown, P. (1999). The first modern East Asians? Another look at Upper Cave 101, Liujiang, andMinatogawa 1.In Omoto,K.(ed.),Interdisciplinary Perspectives on the Origins of the Japanese, International Research Center for Japanese Studies, Kyoto, Japan, pp. 105–130.Google Scholar
  21. Bureau of Cultural Relics, Tibet Autonomous Region (1990). Xizang Xiaoenda xin shi qi shi dai yi zhi shi jue jian bao [Brief report on the excavation of Xiaoenda Neolithic site in Tibet]. Kaogu Yu Wenwu 1: 28–43.Google Scholar
  22. Bureau of Cultural Relics, Tibet Autonomous Region and Department of History, Sichuan University (1985). Changdu Karou.[Karou: A Neolithic Site in Tibet], Cultural Relics Pub-lishing House, Beijing, China.Google Scholar
  23. Cavalli-Sforza, L. (1998). The Chinese human genome diversity project. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95: 11501–11503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cavalli-Sforza, L., Menozzi, P., and Piazza, A. (1994). The History and Geography of Human Genes, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.Google Scholar
  25. Chang, D.H.S. (1981). The vegetation zonation of the Tibetan plateau. Mountain Res. Dev. 1: 29–48.Google Scholar
  26. Chang, K.C. (1981). Archaeology and Chinese historiography. World Archaeol. 13(2): 156–169.Google Scholar
  27. Chang, K. C. (1986). The Archaeology of Ancient China, Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.Google Scholar
  28. Chayet, A. (1994). Art et Archéologie du Tibet, Picard, Paris.Google Scholar
  29. Chen, C. (1984). The Microlithic of China. J. Anthropol. Anthropol. 1:79–115.Google Scholar
  30. Chen, C., and Wang, X. (1989). Upper Paleolithic microblade industries in north China and their relationships with northeast Asia and North America. Arctic Anthropol. 26:144–145.Google Scholar
  31. China Tibetology Institute, Archaeology Department of Sichuan University and Bureau of Cultural Relics, Tibet Autonomous Region (2001a). Xi zang zha da xian pi yang dong ga yi zhi gu mu qun shi jue jian bao [Brief report of a preliminary excavation of ancient tomb groups in Piyang-Dongga site of Zhada county in Tibet]. Kaogu 6: 14–31Google Scholar
  32. China Tibetology Institute, Archaeology Department of Sichuan University and Bureau of Cultural Relics, Tibet Autonomous Region (2001b) Xizang Zhada xian Gebusailu mudi diaocha [Survey of the Gebusailu cemetery in Zhada County, Tibet]. Kaogu 6: 39–44.Google Scholar
  33. Chu, J., Huang, W., Kuang, S., Wang, J., Xu, J., Chu, A., Yang, A., Lin, K., Li, P., Wu, W., Geng, Z., Tan, C., Du, R., and Jin, L. (1998). Genetic relationships of populations in China. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci.U.S.A. 95: 11763–11768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Chung, K. (1960) On Zhang zhung. Bull. Inst. History Philol. Acad. Sin. 4:137–154 (Taipei, Taiwan).Google Scholar
  35. Duan Qingbo (1989). Xizang xi shi gi yi cun. [Microlithic remains in Tibet.] Kaogu Yu Wenwu 5: 87–109.Google Scholar
  36. Elston, R., and Brantingham, P. J. (2002). Microlithic technology in northern Asia: A risk-minimizing strategy of the Late Paleolithic and Early Holocene. In Elston, R., and Kuhn, S. (eds.), Thinking Small: Global Perspectives on Microlithization, Archaeological Papers of the American Anthropological Association 12, Washington, DC, pp. 103–116.Google Scholar
  37. Etler, D. (1996). The fossil evidence for human evolution in Asia. Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 25: 275–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Francke, A. (1907). A History of Western Tibet, One of the Unknown Empires, Patridge, London.Google Scholar
  39. Francke, A. (1914). Antiquities of Indian Tibet, Archaeological Survey of Indian 38, Part 1: Personal Narrative, Calcutta, India.Google Scholar
  40. Gai, P. (1985). Microlithic industries in China. In Wu, R., and Olsen, J. (eds.), Paleoanthropol-ogy and Paleolithic Archaeology in the People's Republic of China, Academic Press, New York, pp. 225–242.Google Scholar
  41. Gai, P., and Wang, K. (1983). Huanghe shangyou Layihai xishiqi yizhi fajue baogao [Excava-tion report on a Mesolithic site at Layihai, Upper Yellow River]. Acta Anthropol. Sin. 2: 49–59.Google Scholar
  42. Gai, P., and Wei, Q. (1977). Hutouliang Jiushiqishidai wanqi yizhi-de faxian [Discovery of the Late Paleolithic site at Hutouliang, Hebei]. Vertebrata Pal Asiatica 15(4): 287–300.Google Scholar
  43. Gasse, F., Fontes, J., Van Campo, E., and Wei, K. (1996). Holocene environmental changes in Bangong Co. basin (Western Tibet). Palaeogeogr., Paleaoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 120: 79–92.Google Scholar
  44. Goldstein, M. (1997). The Snow Lion and the Dragon: China, Tibet, and the Dalai Lama, University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  45. Goldstein, M., and Kapstein, M., (eds.) (1998). Buddhism in Contemporary Tibet: Religious Revival and Cultural Identity, University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  46. Haarh, E. (1969). The Yarlung Dynasty, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.Google Scholar
  47. Hanson, A., Ritts, B., Zinniker, D., Moldowan, J., and Biffi, U. (2001). Upper Oligocene la-custrine source rocks and petroleum system of the northern Qaidam Basin, NW China. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol. Bull. 85: 601–619.Google Scholar
  48. He, Q. (1994). Xizang Gongga xian Changguogou xinshiqi yizhi diaocha baogao [A report on the investigation of the Neolithic sites in Changgaougou, Gongga County, Tibet]. Xizang kaogu 1: 28.Google Scholar
  49. Hou, S. (1991). Xizang Kaogu Da Gang [Archaeological Survey of Tibet], People's Publishing House of Tibet, Lhasa.Google Scholar
  50. Huang, W. (1994). The prehistoric human occupation of the Qinghai-Xizang plateau. Götinger Geographische Abhandlungen 95: 201–219.Google Scholar
  51. Huo, W. (1994). Xizang Qugong cui shi shi mu chu tu de dai bing tong jing ji qi xiang guan wen ti chu tan [A preliminary discussion of the bronze mirror with an iron handle unearthed at the Qugong cyst tomb, Tibet]. Kaogu 7: 650–661.Google Scholar
  52. Huo, W. (1995). Xizang Gu Dai Mu Zang Zhi Du Yan Jiu [Studies on Ancient Tibetan Burial Customs], Sichuan People's Publishing House, Chengdu.Google Scholar
  53. Huo, W. (1997). Zai lun Xizang dai bing tong jing de you guan wen ti [A further discussion on questions related to bronze mirrors with a handle from Tibet]. Kaogu 11: 61–69.Google Scholar
  54. Huo, W. (2000). Jin shi nian Xizang kao gu de fa xian yu yan jiu [Archaeological findings and researches in the late ten years]. Wenwu 3: 85–95.Google Scholar
  55. Huo, W. (2002a). Xizang a li dong ga fu shi dian tang yi zhi de kao gu fa jue [Excavation of a Buddhist Temple in Ngari, Tibet 2002]. Wenwu 8: 34–39.Google Scholar
  56. Huo, W. (2002b). Xi zang a li zha da xian xiang quan he liu yu fa xian de liang zuo fu jiao shi ku [Two Buddhist caves newly discovered in Zanda County, Tibet.] Wenwu 8:63–69.Google Scholar
  57. Huo, W., and Li, Y. (1993a). Ji long wen wu zhi [A Survey of the Cultural Relics in Kyirong County]. People's Publishing House of Tibet, Lhasa.Google Scholar
  58. Huo, W., and Li, Y. (1993b). Ali di qu wen wu zhi [A Survey of the Cultural Relics in Ali Prefecture]. People's Publishing House of Tibet, Lhasa.Google Scholar
  59. Huo, W., and Li, Y. (2001). Xi zang zha da xian pi yang-dong ga yi zhi 1997 nian diao cha yu fa jue [Survey and excavation of the Piang-Dongga site in Zanda County, Tibet, in 1997]. Acta Archaeol. Sin. 3:397–426.Google Scholar
  60. Institute of Archaeology, Chinese Academy of Social Science and Bureau of Cultural Relics, Tibet Autonomous Region (1991a). Xizang Lasa shi Qugong cun xin shi qi shi dai yi zhi di yi ci fa jue jian bao [Brief report on the first excavation of Qugong neolithic site in Lhasa Tibet]. Kaogu 10: 873–881.Google Scholar
  61. Institute of Archaeology, Chinese Academy of Social Science and Bureau of Cultural Relics, Tibet Autonomous Region (1991b). Xizang Lasa shi Qugong cun shi shi mu fa jue jian bao [Brief report on the excavation of the Qugong burials in Lhasa, Tibet]. Kaogu 10: 927–931Google Scholar
  62. Institute of Archaeology, Chinese Academy of Social Science and Bureau of Cultural Relics, Tibet Autonomous Region (1999a). Xizang guoga xian chuang guo gou xin shi qi shi dai yi zhi [The Changuogou neolithic site in Gongga county, Tibet]. Kaogu 4: 1–10Google Scholar
  63. Institute of Archaeology, Chinese Academy of Social Science and Bureau of Cultural Relics, Tibet Autonomous Region (1999b). Qugong in Lhasa: Excavations of an Ancient Site and Tombs, Encyclopedia of China Publishing House, Beijing.Google Scholar
  64. Jacobsen-Tepfer, E., Kubarev, V. D., and Tseveendorj, D. (2001). Mongolie du Nord-Ouest: Tsagaan Salaa/Baga Oigor. Répertoire des Pétroglyphes d'Asie centrale, Fascicule no. 6. Sher, J. A., and Francfort, H.-P. (eds.), 2 vols., De Boccard, Paris.Google Scholar
  65. Jian, N. (2000). A simulation of biomes on the Tibetan plateau and their responses to global climatic change. Mountain Res. Dev. 20: 80–89.Google Scholar
  66. Jiayang, and Huo, W. (2001). Er shi shi ji Xizang kaogu de hui gu yu si kao [A retrospect of archaeology in Tibet during the 20th century]. Kaogu 6: 3–13.Google Scholar
  67. Kuhle, M. (1988). The Pleistocene glaciation of Tibet and the onset of the ice ages: An auto-cycle hypothesis. GeoJournal 17: 581–595.Google Scholar
  68. Kuhle, M. (1998). Reconstruction of the 2.4 km 2 Late Pleistocene ice sheet on the Tibetan plateau and its impact of the global climate. Quaternary Int. 45/46: 71–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Larssen K., and A. Sinding Larsen (2001). The Lhasa Atlas: Traditional Tibetan Architecture and Townscape, Shambhala, Boston.Google Scholar
  70. Lehmkuhl, F. (1997). Late Pleistocene, Late-glacial, and Holocene glacial advances on the Tibetan plateau. Quaternary Int. 38/39: 77–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lehmkuhl, F. (1998). Extent and spatial distribution of Pleistocene glaciations in eastern Tibet. Quaternary Int. 45/46: 123–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Lehmkuhl, F., and Haselein, F. (2000). Quaternary paleoenvironmental change on the Tibetan Plateau and adjacent areas (western China and western Mongolia). Quaternary Int. 65/66: 121–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Li, J., and Zhao, H. (1999). Xizang Gongga xian Changguogou xinshiqi yizhi [The Chang-guoguo Neolithic site in Gongga, Tibet]. Kaogu 4: 1–10.Google Scholar
  74. Li, Y. (1991). Ji long luo long gou de ya lu zang bu jiang zhong shang you de shi qi yi cun-jian lun xi zang gao yuan xi shi qi yi cun de xiang guan wen ti [Deposits of stone implements in the Gyirong area and the upper and middle reaches of the Yarlung Tsangpo River: A reference to some correlative questions about the early stone implements in Tibet]. Nan fang min zu kaogu 4: 47–63.Google Scholar
  75. Li, Y. (1994). Lun Xizang de xishiqi [On the microlithic implements of Tibet]. Xizang yanjiu 1: 126–132.Google Scholar
  76. Liu, J., Yu, G., and Chen, X. (2002). Palaeoclimate simulation of 21 ka for the Tibetan plateau and eastern Asia. Climate Dyn. 19: 575–583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Liu, Z. 1981. Xi zang gao yuan ma fa mu hu dong bei an deng san ge di dian de xi shi qi [Microlith from three sites on the northeast coast of Mapham lake in Tibet]. J. Nanjing Univ. 4: 87–96.Google Scholar
  78. Liu, Z., and Wang, F. 1986. Xi zang gao yuan duo ge ze yu zha bu di dian de jiu shi qi-jian lun gao yuan gu huan jing dui shi qi wen hua fen bu de ying xiang [Paleoliths from the Duogeze and Zhabu sites of the Tibetan plateau-On the paleo-environmental influence on the distribution of stone culture on Tibetan plateau]. Kaogu 4: 289–299.Google Scholar
  79. Macdonald, A. W. (1953). Une note sur les mégaliths Tibétains. J. Asiatique 241: 63–76.Google Scholar
  80. Madsen, D., Li, J., Brantingham, P. J., Gao, X., Elston, R., and Bettinger, R. (2001). Dating Shuidonggou and the Upper Paleolithic blade industry in north China. Antiquity 75: 706–716.Google Scholar
  81. Matisoff, J. (1991). Sino-Tibetan linguistics: Present state and future prospects. Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 20: 469–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Miehe, G. (1996). On the connexion of vegetation dynamics with climate changes in High Asia. Palaeogeogr. Paleaoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 120: 5–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Overpeck, J., Anderson, D., Trumbore, S., and Prell, W. (1996). The southwest Indian mon-soon over the past 18000 years. Climate Dyn. 12: 213–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Petech, L. (1997). Western Tibet: Historical introduction. In Klimburgh-Salter, D. (ed.), Tabo: A Lamp for the Kingdom, Thames and Hudson, London, pp. 229–255.Google Scholar
  85. Qian, F., and Wu, X. 1988. Zang bei gao yuan ge ting shi qi chu bu guan cha [A preliminary observations on the stone artifacts collected from Geting in northern Tibetan plateau]. Ren Lei Xue Xue Bao 7:75–83.Google Scholar
  86. Qian, Y., B. Qian, B. Su, J. Yu, Y. Ke, Z. Chu, L. Shi, D. Lu, J. Chu, and L. Jin. (2000). Multiple origins of Tibetan Y chromosome. Hum. Genet. 106: 453–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Ren, G. (2000). Decline of the mid-to-late Holocene forests in China: Climate change or hu-man impact? J. Quaternary Sci. 15: 273–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Ren, G., and H. Beug (2002). Mapping Holocene pollen data and vegetation of China. Qua-ternary Sci. Rev. 21: 1395–1422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Renfrew, C. (2000). At the edge of knowability: Towards a prehistory of languages. Cambridge Archaeol. J. 10: 7–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Roerich, G. (1930). The Animal Style Among the Nomad Tribes of Northern Tibet, Seminarium Kondakovianum, Prague, Czech Republic.Google Scholar
  91. Rowley, D., R. Pierrehumbert, and B. Currie. (2001). A new approach to stable isotope-based paleoaltimetry: Implications for paleoaltimetry and paleohypsometry of the High Himalaya since the Late Miocene. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 188:253–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Samuel, G. (1993). Civilized Shamans: Buddhism in Tibetan Societies, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  93. Samuel, G. (2000). The Indus Valley civilization and early Tibet. In Karmay, S., and Nagano, Y. (eds.), New Horizons in Bon Studies, National Museum of Ethnology, Osaka, Japan, pp. 651–670.Google Scholar
  94. Schäfer, J., Tschudi, S., Zhao, Z., Wu, X., Ivy-Ochs, S., Wieler, R., Baur, H., Kubik, P., and Schlüchter, C. (2002). The limited influence of glaciations in Tibet on global climate over the past 170000 years. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 194: 287–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Schaller, G. (1998). Wildlife of the Tibetan Steppe, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  96. Snellgrove, D., and H. Richardson (1995). A Cultural History of Tibet, Shambhala, Boston.Google Scholar
  97. Stein, R. A. (1972). Tibetan Civilization, Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA.Google Scholar
  98. Su, B., Xiao, J., Deka, R., Seielstad, M., Kangwanpong, D., Xiao, J., Lu, D., Under-hill, P., Cavalli-Sforza, L., Chakraborty, R., and Li, J. (2000). Y chromosome hap-lotypes reveal prehistorical migrations to the Himalayas. Hum. Genet. 107: 582–590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Su, B., Xiao, J., Underhill, P., Deka, R., Zhang, W., Akey, J., Huang, W., Shen, D., Lu, D., Luo, J., Chu, J., Tan, J., Shen, P., Davis, R., Cavalli-Sforza, L., Chakraborty, R., Xiong, M., Du, R., Oefner, P., Chen, Z., and Jin, L. (1999). Y-chromosome data evidence for a northward migration of modern humans into eastern Asia during the last Ice Age. Am. J. of Human Genetics 65: 1718–1724.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Suolang, W. (1986). Naidong xian wenwu zhi. [A Survey of Cultural Relics in Ngang-Ring County], People's Publishing House, Lhasa, Tibet.Google Scholar
  101. Suolang, W. (1991). Xi zang kao gu xin fa xian zong shu [A brief summary of new archaeolog-ical discoveries in Tibet]. In Tong, E. (ed.), Nan fang min zu kaogu [Southern Ethnology and Archaeology], Sichuan University, Chengdu, China. Vol. 4, pp. 9–24.Google Scholar
  102. Tang, H. (1999). Lue lun qing zang gao yuan de jiu shi qi he xi shi qi [A preliminary research on the Paleolith and Microlith on Tibetan plateau]. Kaogu 5: 44–54.Google Scholar
  103. Tang, H., and Hare, J. (1995). Lithic tool industries and the earliest occupation of the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau. Artefact 18: 3–11.Google Scholar
  104. Tong, E. (1978). Shilun chuanxibei shiguanmu de zuqun wenti [A tentative study of the eth-nicity of stone coffin burials in northwestern Sichuan]. Kaogu 2: 34–45.Google Scholar
  105. Tong, E. (1983). Ren lei ke neng de fa yuan di-zhong guo xi nan di qu [Southwest China: A possible place of origin for the human beings]. J. Sichuan Univ. 3: 3–14.Google Scholar
  106. Tong, E. (1985). Xi zang kao gu zong shu [A summary of the archaeology of Tibet]. Wenwu 9: 9–19Google Scholar
  107. Tong, E. (1989). Xi zang gao yuan shang de shou fu [Hand axe from the Tibetan plateau]. Kaogu 9: 822–826.Google Scholar
  108. Tong, E. (1990). Zhong guo xi nan min zu kao gu lun wen ji [Collected Papers on Ethnoarchae-ology in Southwest China], Cultural Relics Publishing House, Beijing.Google Scholar
  109. Torroni A., Miller, J., Moore, L., Zamudio, S., Zhuang, J., Droma, T., and Wallace, D. (1994). Mitochondrial DNA analysis in Tibet-Implications for the origin of the Tibetan popula-tion and its adaptation to high altitude. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 92: 189–199.Google Scholar
  110. Tsering, S. (1999). The Dragon in the Land of Snows: A History of Modern Tibet Since 1947, Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  111. Tucci, G. (1950). The Tombs of the Tibetan Kings, Serie Orientale Roma I, IsMEO.Google Scholar
  112. Tucci, G. (1956). Preliminary Report on Two Scientific Expeditions in Nepal, Serie Orientale Roma X, Istituto Italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente, Rome.Google Scholar
  113. Tucci, G. (1989). Sadhus et Brigands du Kailash: Mon Voyage au Tibet Occidental,Editions R. Chabaud, Paris (1st edition in Italian, 1937).Google Scholar
  114. Underhill, A. (1997). Current issues in Chinese Neolithic archaeology. J. World Prehistory 11: 103–160.Google Scholar
  115. Underhill, A., Feinman, G., Nicholas, L., Bennet, G., Fang, H., Luan, F., Yu, H., and Cai, F. (2002). Regional survey and the development of complex societies in southeastern Shandong, China. Antiquity 76: 745–755.Google Scholar
  116. van Driem, G. (1998). Neolithic correlates of ancient Tibeto-Burman migrations. In Blench, R., and Spriggs, M. (eds.), Archaeology and Language II,Routledge, London, pp. 67–102.Google Scholar
  117. van Driem, G. (2001). Languages of the Himalayas: An Ethnolinguistic Handbook of the Greater Himalayan Region, 2 vols., Brill, Leiden, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  118. van Driem, G. (2002). Tibeto-Burman phylogeny and prehistory: Languages, material culture, and genes. In Bellwood, P., and Renfrew, C. (eds.), Examining the Farming/Language Dispersal Hypothesis, McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, University of Cambridge, Oxford, pp. 233–249.Google Scholar
  119. Vitali, R. (1990). Early Temples of Central Tibet, Serinda Publications, London.Google Scholar
  120. Vitali, R. (2000). Records of Tholing. A Literary and Visual Reconstruction of the "Mother" Monastery in Guge, Amnye Machen Institute, Dharamshala, India.Google Scholar
  121. Von Falkenhausen, L. (1993). On the historiographical orientation of Chinese archaeology. Antiquity 87: 839–849.Google Scholar
  122. Wang, D. (1994). A further typological study of Neolithic culture in Yunnan. J. Tibetan Archaeol. 1: 91–108.Google Scholar
  123. Wang, M. (2002). Searching for Qiang culture in the first half of the twentieth century. Inner Asia 4: 131–48.Google Scholar
  124. Wang, Z. (1994). History of Nationalities in China, China Social Science Press, Beijing.Google Scholar
  125. Xiage, W. (1998). Shixi Xizang shiqian shiguanmu de xingshi yu fenqi [A tentative analysis of types and dates of prehistoric stone coffin burials in Tibet]. Xizang yanjiu 4: 40–44.Google Scholar
  126. Zhang, D., and Li, S. (2002). Optical dating of Tibetan human hand-and footprints: An impli-cation for the palaeoenvironment of the last glaciation of the Tibetan Plateau. Geophys. Res. Lett. 29: 1069.Google Scholar
  127. Zhao, H. (1994). Xizang Qugong chutu de tiebing tongjing wenti yanjiu [Questions concern-ing the bronze mirror with an iron handle unearthed in Qugong, Tibet]. Kaogu 7: 47–52.Google Scholar
  128. Zhao, H. (2002). Lun Xizang Bangda yizhi, Qugong wenhua, yu Xizang de shiqian wen-ming [On the Bangga site, Qugong culture, and prehistoric civilization in Tibet]. Paper presented at the International Academic Conference on Tibetan Archaeology and Art, Beijing.Google Scholar
  129. Zheng, B., and Rutter, N. (1998). On the problem of Quaternary glaciations and the extent and patterns of Plesitocene ie cover in the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) plateau. Quaternary Int. 45/46: 109–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark Aldenderfer
    • 1
  • Zhang Yinong
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyUniversity of CaliforniaSanta Barbara
  2. 2.Department of AnthropologyCornell UniversityIthaca

Personalised recommendations