Mindfulness: A Proposed Common Factor
Mindfulness is proposed as a core psychotherapy process. It is defined as a state of psychological freedom that occurs when attention remains quiet and limber, without attachment to any particular point of view. It can be shown that this process is collaborativefy employed by psychotherapist and patient within all psychotherapy orientations, and also by the integrative psychotherapist when making optimal choices among orientations. This article addresses (1) the defining attributes of mindfulness, (2) relevant conceptual approaches that lend theoretical support for a mindfulness factor, (3) two attentional forms of mindfulness that seem to have particular correspondence with either psychodynamic or cognitive-behavioral therapy, (4) clinical applications, and (5) the role of mindfulness for the integrative decision-making process.