Journal of Chemical Ecology

, Volume 23, Issue 7, pp 1891–1900 | Cite as

Volatile, Potential Attractants from Ripe Coffee Fruit for Female Mediterranean Fruit Fly

  • J. D. Warthen
  • C.-J. Lee
  • E. B. Jang
  • D. R. Lance
  • D. O. McInnis


Twenty-eight volatile compounds from freshly crushed, ripe, dark red coffee fruit, Coffea arabica, were identified by dynamic headspace analysis techniques. Identifications were made on the basis of a comparison of Kovats indices and GC-MS spectra for unknowns and authentic samples. Of the compounds identified, 10 were alcohols, nine were aldehydes, five were ketones, and four were monoterpenes. The five most abundant volatiles in decreasing order were hexanal (21%), 2-(E)-hexenal (11%), 3-methyl-1-butanol (9.0%), 3-methyl-1-butanal (8.5%), and 1-hexanol (8.4%). The five least abundant volatiles of the 28 identified, in increasing order, were decanal (0.19%), methyl hexanoate (0.33%), pulegone (0.44%), α-isomenthone (0.45%), and 2-nonanone (0.55%). In preliminary tests, many of the identified volatiles attracted more female Mediterranean fruit flies than the control.

Coffee fruit Coffea arabica host Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata medfly analysis of volatiles attractant lure Diptera Tephritidae 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. ANONYMOUS. 1996. Scholar
  2. BAKER, P. S., HOWSE, P. E., ONDARZA, R. N., and REYES, J. 1990. Field trials of synthetic sex pheromone components of the male Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in southern Mexico. J. Econ. Entomol. 83:2235–2245.Google Scholar
  3. BATEMAN, M. A. 1972. Ecology of fruitflies. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 17:494–518.Google Scholar
  4. BEROZA, M. GREEN, N., GERTLER, S. I., STEINER, L. F., and MIYASHITA, D. M. 1961. New attractants for the Mediterranean fruit fly. J. Agric. Food Chem. 9:361–365.Google Scholar
  5. CHYAU, C.-C., CHEN, S.-Y., and WU, C.-M. 1992. Differences of volatile and nonvolatile constituents between mature and ripe guava (Psidium guajava Linn) fruits. J. Agric. Food Chem. 40:846–849.Google Scholar
  6. COSSÉ, A. A., TODD, J. L., MILLAR, J. G., MARTÍNEZ, L. A., and BAKER, T. C. 1995. Electroan-tennographic and coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic responses of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, to male-produced volatiles and mango odor. J. Chem. Ecol. 21:1823–1836.Google Scholar
  7. DICKENS, J. C., JANG, E. B., LIGHT, D. M., and ALFORD, A. R. 1990. Enhancement of insect pheromone responses by green leaf volatiles. Naturwissenschaften 77:29–31.Google Scholar
  8. HAGEN, K. S., ALLEN, W. W., and TASSAN, R. L. 1981. Mediterranean fruit fly: The worst may be yet to come. Calif. Agric. 35:5–7.Google Scholar
  9. HEINZ, D. E., SEVENANTS, M. R., JENNINGS, W. G. 1966. Preparation of fruit essences for gas chromatography. J. Food Sci. 31:63–68.Google Scholar
  10. IDSTEIN, H., and SCHREIER, P. 1985. Volatile constituents from guava (Psidium guajava, L.) fruit. J. Agric. Food Chem. 33:138–143.Google Scholar
  11. JACKSON, D. S., and LEE, B. B. 1985. Medfly in California 1980–1982. Bull. Entomol. Soc. Am. 31:29–37.Google Scholar
  12. JANG, E. B., and LIGHT, D. M. 1991. Behavioral responses of female oriental fruit flies to the odor of papayas at three different ripeness stages in a laboratory flight tunnel (Diptera: Tephritidae). J. Insect Behav. 4:751–762.Google Scholar
  13. JANG, E. B., LIGHT, D. M., BINDER, R. G., FLATH, R. A., and CARVALHO. 1994. Attraction of female Mediterranean fruit flies to the five major components of male-produced pheromone in a laboratory flight tunnel. J. Chem. Ecol. 20:9–20.Google Scholar
  14. KEISER, I., HARRIS, E. J., MIYASHITA, D. H., JACOBSON, M., and PERDUE, R. E., JR. 1975. Attraction of ethyl ether extracts of 232 botanicals to oriental fruit flies, melon flies and Mediterranean fruit flies. Lloydia 38:141–152.Google Scholar
  15. KOVATS, E. 1966. Gas chromatographic characterization of organic substances in the retention index system, in J. C. Giddings and R. A. Keller (eds.). Advances in Chromatography, Vol. 1. Marcel Dekker, New York.Google Scholar
  16. LIQUIDO, N. J., SHINODA, L. A., and CUNNINGHAM, R. T. 1991. Host plants of the Mediterranean fruit Fly: An annotated world review. Misc. Publ. Entomol. Soc. Am. 77:1–52.Google Scholar
  17. MAC LEOD, A. J., and GONZALEZ DE TROCONIS, N. 1982. Volatile flavour components of guava. Phytochemistry 21:1339–1342.Google Scholar
  18. MC GOVERN, T. P., and CUNNINGHAM, R. T. 1987. New medfly attractants: Halogen analogs of trimedlure. National Conference of the Entomological Society of America, Boston, Massachusetts, Paper #1283. November 29–December 3.Google Scholar
  19. MC GOVERN, T. P., and CUNNINGHAM, R. T. 1988. Persistent attractants for the Mediterranean fruit fly, the method of preparation and method of use. US Patent 4,764,366. Issued August 16.Google Scholar
  20. NISHIMURA, O. YAMAGUCHI, K., MIHARA, S., and SHIBAMOTO, T. 1989. Volatile constituents of guava fruits (Psidium guajava L.) and canned puree. J. Agric. Food Chem. 37:139–142.Google Scholar
  21. PROKOPY, R. J., and VARGAS, R. I. 1996. Attraction of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) flies to odor of coffee fruit. J. Chem. Ecol. 22:807–820.Google Scholar
  22. SAS Institute. 1988. SAS/STAT User's Guide. Release 6.03 edition. SAS Institute, Cary, North Carolina.Google Scholar
  23. SIVINSKI, J. M., and CALKINS, C. 1986. Pheromones and parapheromones in the control of Tephritids. Fla. Entomol. 69:157–168.Google Scholar
  24. TAKANA, N. 1965. Artificial egg laying receptacles for three species of Tephritid flies. J. Econ. Entomol. 58:177–178.Google Scholar
  25. VARGAS, R. I., and CHANG, H. B. 1991. Evaluation of oviposition stimulants for mass production of melon fly, oriental fruit fly, and Mediterranean fruit fly. J. Econ. Entomol. 84:1695–1698.Google Scholar
  26. VARGAS, R. I., WALSH, W. A., and NISHIDA, T. 1995. Colonization of newly planted coffee fields: Dominance of Mediterranean fruit fly over oriental fruit fly. J. Econ. Entomol. 88:620–627.Google Scholar
  27. WAIKWA, J. W. 1979. Ovipositional behaviour of C. capitata with reference to coffee berry age. Kenya Coffee 44:23–27.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. D. Warthen
    • 1
  • C.-J. Lee
    • 1
  • E. B. Jang
    • 2
  • D. R. Lance
    • 3
  • D. O. McInnis
    • 4
  1. 1.Insect Chemical Ecology Laboratory, BARC-WUSDA, ARSBeltsville
  2. 2.Tropical Fruit & Vegetable Research LaboratoryUSDA, ARSHilo
  3. 3.Hawaii Plant Protection CenterUSDA, APHIS, PPQWaimanalo
  4. 4.Tropical Fruit & Vegetable Research LaboratoryUSDA, ARSHonolulu

Personalised recommendations