Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes

, Volume 35, Issue 6, pp 577–598 | Cite as

Modulation and Pharmacology of Low Voltage-Activated (“T-Type”) Calcium Channels

  • Anne Marie R. Yunker


Although T-type calcium channel currents were observed almost 30 years ago, the genes that encode the pore-forming subunits have only been recently reported. When expressed in heterologous systems, three distinct alpha1 subunits (alpha1G (Cav3.1), alpha1H (Cav3.2), and alpha1I (Cav3.3)) conduct T-type currents with insert similar but not identical electrophysiological characteristics that. Alpha1G, alpha1H, and alpha1I transcripts are found throughout neural and nonneural tissues, suggesting multiple types of T-type channels (also called low voltage-activated calcium channels (LVAs)) are coexpressed by many tissues. The study of endogenous LVAs has been hampered by a lack of highly selective antagonists that differentiate between LVA subtypes. Furthermore, many pharmacological agents attenuate currents conducted by LVA and high voltage-activated calcium channels (HVAs). At least 15 classes of pharmacological agents affect T-type currents, and the therapeutic use of many of these drugs has implicated LVAs in the etiology of a variety of diseases. Comparison of the responses of recombinant and native LVAs to pharmacological agents and endogenous modulatory molecules will lead to a better understanding of LVAs in normal and diseased cells.

T-type review alpha1G (Cav3.1) alpha1H (Cav3.2) alpha1I (Cav3.3) epilepsy cardiac vascular pharmacology 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abdulla, F. A., and Smith, P. A., (1997). J. Neurosci. 17, 8721–8728.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Akaike, N., (1991). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C, 98, 31–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Akaike, N., Kanaide, H., Kuga, T., Nakamura, M., Sadoshima, J., and Tomoike, H., (1989a). J. Physiol. 416, 141–160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Akaike, N., Kostyuk, P. G., and Osipchuk, Y. V., (1989b). J. Physiol. 412, 181–195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Alvarez, J. L., Rubio, C. L., and Vassort, G., (1996). J. Physiol. 491, 321–334.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Alvarez, J. L., and Vassort, G., (1992). J. Gen. Physiol. 100, 519–545.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Angus, J. A., Sarsero, D., Fujiwara, T., Molenaar, P., and Xi, Q., (2000). Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol. 27, 1019–1021.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Anwyl, R., (1991). Brain Res. Rev. 16, 265–281.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Arnoult, C., Cardullo, R. A., Lemos, J. R., and Florman, H. M., (1996). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93, 13004–13009.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Arnoult, C., Lemos, J. R., and Florman, H. M., (1997). EMBO J. 16, 1593–1599.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Arnoult, C., Villaz, M., and Florman, H. M., (1998). Mol. Pharmacol. 53, 1104–1111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Aronson, P. S., (1985). Annu. Rev. Physiol. 47, 545–560.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Assandri, R., Egger, M., Gassmann, M., Niggli, E., Bauer, C., Forster, I., and Gorlach, A., (1999). J. Physiol. 516, 343–352.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Babitch, J., (1990). Nature, 346, 321–322.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Barbara, J. G., and Takeda, K., (1995). J. Physiol. 488, 609–622.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Barrett, P. Q., Isales, C. M., Bollag, W. B., and McCarthy, R. T., (1991a). Am. J. Physiol. 261, F706–F719.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Barrett, P. Q., Isales, C. M., Bollag, W. B., and McCarthy, R. T., (1991b). Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 69, 1553–1560.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Barrett, P. Q., Lu, H. K., Colbran, R., Czernik, A., and Pancrazio, J. J., (2000). Am. J. Physiol. 279, C1694–C1703.Google Scholar
  19. Bean, B. P., (1985). J. Gen. Physiol. 86, 1–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Bean, B. P., (1989). Annu. Rev. Physiol. 51, 367–384.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Berger, A. J., and Takahashi, T., (1990). J. Neurosci. 10, 1922–1928.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Bernatchez, G., Sauve, R., and Parent, L., (2001). J. Membr. Biol. 184, 143–159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Berthier, C., Monteil, A., Lory, P., and Strube, C., (2002). J. Physiol. 539, 681–691.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Bezprozvanny, I., and Tsien, R. W., (1995). Mol. Pharmacol. 48, 540–549.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Bilici, D., Akpinar, E., Gursan, N., Dengiz, G. O., Bilici, S., and Altas, S., (2001). Pharmacol. Res. 44, 527–531.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Boll, W., and Lux, H. D., (1985). Neurosci. Lett. 56, 335–339.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Borgland, S. L., Connor, M., and Christie, M. J., (2001). J. Physiol. 536, 35–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Bowling, A. C., and DeLorenzo, R. J., (1982). Science, 216, 1247–1250.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Bringmann, A., Skatchkov, S. N., Faude, F., Enzmann, V., and Reichenbach, A., (2000). J. Neurosci. Res. 62, 396–402.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Buisson, B., Bottari, S. P., De Gasparo, M., Gallo-Payet, N., and Payet, M. D., (1992). FEBS Lett. 309, 161–164.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Buisson, B., Laflamme, L., Bottari, S. P., de Gasparo, M., Gallo-Payet, N., and Payet, M. D., (1995). J. Biol. Chem. 270, 1670–1674.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Burlhis, T. M., and Aghajanian, G. K., (1987). Synapse, 1, 582–588.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Camara, A. K., Begic, Z., Kwok, K. M., and Bosnjak, Z. J., (2001). Anesthesiology, 95, 515–524.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Carbone, E., and Lux, H. D., (1984). Biophys. J. 46, 413–418.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Catterall, W. A., (2000). Annu. Rev. Cell. Dev. Biol. 16, 521–555.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Chemin, J., Monteil, A., Bourinet, E., Nargeot, J., and Lory, P., (2001a). Biophys. J. 80, 1238–1250.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Chemin, J., Monteil, A., Briquaire, C., Richard, S., Perez-Reyes, E., Nargeot, J., and Lory, P., (2000). FEBS Lett. 478, 166–172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Chemin, J., Monteil, A., Dubel, S., Nargeot, J., and Lory, P., (2001b). Eur. J. Neurosci. 14, 1678–1686.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Chemin, J., Monteil, A., Perez-Reyes, E., Bourinet, E., Nargeot, J., and Lory, P., (2002). J. Physiol. 540, 3–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Chemin, J., Monteil, A., Perez-Reyes, E., Nargeot, J., and Lory, P., (2001). EMBO J. 20, 7033–7040.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Chen, C. C., and Best, P. M., (1996). FASEB J. 10, A310.Google Scholar
  42. Chen, J., Devivo, M., Dingus, J., Harry, A., Li, J., Sui, J., Carty, J. J., Blank, J. L., Exton, J. H., Stoffel, R. H., Inglese, J., Lefkowitz, R. J., Logothetis, D. E., and Hildebrandt, J. D., Lyengar R., (1995). Science, 268, 1166–1169.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Chen, C., Xu, R., Clarke, I. J., Ruan, M., Loneragan, K., and Roh, S. G., (2000). Immunol. Cell. Biol. 78, 356–368.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Cherksey, B., LlinÁas, R., Sugimori, M., and Lin, J.-W., (1989). Biol. Bull. 177, 321–322.Google Scholar
  45. Chien, A. J., Zhao, X., Shirokov, R. E., Puri, T. S., Chang, C. F., Sun, D., Rios, E., and Hosey, M. M., (1995). J. Biol. Chem. 270, 30036–30044.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Chuang, R. S. I., Jaffe, H. C. L. P.-R. E., and Swartz, K. J., (1998). Nat. Neurosci. 1, 668–674.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Clozel, J. P., Ertel, E. A., and Ertel, S. I., (1997). J. Hypertens. Suppl. 15, S17–S25.Google Scholar
  48. Cohen, C. J., McCarthy, R. T., Barrett, P. Q., and Rasmussen, H., (1988). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 85, 2412–2416.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Coulter, D. A., Huguenard, J. R., and Prince, D. A., (1989a). J. Physiol. 414, 587–604.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Coulter, D. A., Huguenard, J. R., and Prince, D. A., (1989b). Neurosci. Lett. 98, 74–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Coulter, D. A., Huguenard, J. R., and Prince, D. A., (1990). Br. J. Pharmacol. 100, 800–806.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Cribbs, L. L., Lee, J.-H., Satin, J., Zhang, Y., Daud, A. S., Barclay, J., Williamson, M. P., Fox, M., Rees, M., and Perez-Reyes, E., (1998). Circ. Res. 83, 103–109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Curtis, B. M., and Catterall, W. A., (1984). Biochemistry, 23, 2113–2118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. De Jongh, K. S., Warner, C., Colvin, A. A., and Catterall, W. A., (1991). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88, 10778–10782.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Delisle, B. P., and Satin, J., (2000). Biophys. J. 78, 1895–1905.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Dobrev, D., Milde, A. S., Andreas, K., and Ravens, U., (1999). Br. J. Pharmacol. 127, 576–582.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Doehring, C. J., and Zamponi, G. W., (2003). J. Bioenerg. Biomembr. 35, 491–505.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Dogrul, A., Yesilyurt, O., Isimer, A., and Guzeldemir, M. E., (2001). Pain, 93, 61–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Dogrul, A., Zagli, U., Tulunay, F.C., (2002). Life Sci. 28, 725–734.Google Scholar
  60. Dolphin, A. C., McGuirk, S. M., and Scott, R. H., (1989). Br. J. Pharmacol. 97, 263–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Dolphin, A. C., and Scott, R. H., (1987). J. Physiol. 386, 1–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Drolet, P., Bilodeau, L., Chorvatova, A., Laflamme, L., Gallo-Payet, N., and Payet, M. D., (1997). Mol. Endocrinol. 11, 503–514.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Enyeart, J. J., Biagi, B. A., Day, R. N., Sheu, S.-S., and Maurer, R. A., (1990a). J. Biol. Chem. 265, 16373–16375.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Enyeart, J. J., Biagi, B. A., and Mlinar, B., (1992). Mol. Pharmacol. 42, 364–372.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Enyeart, J. J., Dirksen, R. T., Sharma, V. K., Williford, D. J., and Sheu, S. S., (1990b). Mol. Pharmacol. 37, 752–757.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Enyeart, J. J., Mlinar, B., and Enyeart, J. A., (1993). Mol. Endocrinol. 7, 1031–1040.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Ertel, S. I., Ertel, E. A., and Clozel, J.-P., (1997). Cardiovasc. Drugs Ther. 11, 723–739.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Eskinder, H., Rusch, N. J., Supan, F. D., Kampine, J. P., and Bosnjak, Z. J., (1991). Anesthesiology, 74, 919–926.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Espinosa, F., Lopez-Gonzalez, I., Munoz-Garay, C., Felix, R., De la Vega-Beltran, J. L., Kopf, G. S., Visconti, P. E., and Darszon, A., (2000). FEBS Lett. 2000, 251–256.Google Scholar
  70. Fearon, I. M., Randall, A. D., Perez-Reyes, E., and Peers, C., (2000). Pflugers Arch. 441, 181–188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Fedulova, S. A., Kostyuk, P. G., and Veselovsky, N. S., (1985). J. Physiol. 359, 431–446.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Fern, R. J., Hahm, M. S., Lu, H. K., Gorelick, F. S., and Barrett, P. Q., (1995). Am. J. Physiol. 269, F571–F560.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. French-Mullen, J. M., and Spence, K. T., (1991). Eur. J. Pharmacol. 202, 269–272.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Fisher, R., and Johnston, D., (1990). J. Neurophysiol. 64, 1291–1302.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Flaim, S. F., Brannan, M. D., Swigart, S. C., Gleason, M. M., and Muschek, L. D., (1985). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 82, 1237–1241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Flockerzi, V., Oeken, H. J., Hofmann, F., Pelzer, D., Cavalie, A., and Trautwein, W., (1986). Nature, 323, 66–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Formenti, A., Arrigoni, E., and Mancia, M., (1993). Neuro Report, 5, 145–147.Google Scholar
  78. Fox, A. P., Nowycky, M. C., and Tsien, R. W., (1987). J. Physiol. 394, 149–172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Fraser, D. D., and MacVicar, B. A., (1991). J. Neurosci. 11, 2812–2820.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Frenkel, C., Duch, D. S., and Urban, B. W., (1993). Br. J. Anaesth. 71, 15–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Furukawa, T., Ito, H., Nitta, J., Tsujino, M., Adachi, S., Hiroe, M., Marumo, F., Sawanobori, T., and Hiraoka, M., (1992). Circ. Res. 71, 1242–1253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Galan, L., Talavera, K., Vassort, G., and Alvarez, J. L., (1998). Eur. J. Pharmacol. 357, 93–105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Ganitkevich, V., and Isenberg, G., (1991). J. Physiol. 443, 703–725.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Gomez-Mancilla, B., Latulippe, J. F., Boucher, R., and Bedard, P. J., (1992). Mov. Disord. 7, 137–141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Gomora, J. C., Daud, A. S., Weiergräber, M., and Perez-Reyes, E., (2001). Mol. Pharm. 60, 1121–1132.Google Scholar
  86. Gomora, J. C., and Enyeart, J. J., (1999). J. Pharm. Exp. Ther. 290, 266–275.Google Scholar
  87. Gould, R. J., Murphy, K. M., Reynolds, I. J., and Snyder, S. H., (1983). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 80, 5122–5125.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Gross, R. A., Covey, D. F., and Ferrendelli, J. A., (1997). J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 280, 686–694.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Gross, R. A., and Macdonald, R. L., (1988a). Neurology, 38, 443–451.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Gross, R. A., and Macdonald, R. L., (1988b). J. Physiol. 405, 187–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Gross, R. A., Moises, H. C., Uhler, M. D., and Macdonald, R. L., (1990). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87, 7025–7029.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Haase, H., Striessnig, J., Holtzhauer, M., Vetter, R., and Glossmann, H., (1991). Eur. J. Pharacol. 207, 51–59.Google Scholar
  93. Hagiwara, N., Irisawa, H., and Kameyama, M., (1988). J. Physiol. 395, 233–253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Hagiwara, S., Ozawa, S., and Sand, O., (1975). J. Gen. Physiol. 65, 617–644.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Hahnel, C., Gottman, K., Wittinghofer, A., and Lux, H. D., (1992). Eur. J. Neurosci. 4, 361–368.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Hell, J. W., Appleyard, S. M., Yokoyama, C. T., Warner, C., and Catterall, W. A., (1994). J. Biol. Chem. 269, 7390–7396.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Hell, J. W., Yokoyama, C. T., Wong, S. T., Warner, C., Snutch, T. P., and Catterall, W. A., (1993). J. Biol. Chem. 268, 19451–19457.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Hering, S., Bolton, T. B., Breech, D. J., and Lim, S. P., (1989). Circ. Res. 64, 928–936.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Herrington, J., and Lingle, C. J., (1992). J. Neurophysiol. 68, 213–231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Hirakawa, Y., Kuga, T., Kanaide, H., and Takeshita, A., (1994). Eur. J. Pharmacol. 252, 267–274.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Hirano, Y., Fozzard, H. A., and January, C. T., (1989). Biophys. J. 56, 1007–1016.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Hoehn, K., Watson, T. W., and MacVicar, B. A., (1993). J. Neurosci. 13, 1244–1257.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Holland, K. D., Canney, D. J., Rothman, S. M., Ferrendelli, J. A., and Covey, D. F., (1990a). Brain Res. 516, 147–150.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Holland, K. D., McKeon, A. C., Covey, D. F., and Ferrendelli, J. A., (1990b). J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 254, 578–583.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Huguenard, J. R., (1996). Annu. Rev. Physiol. 58, 329–348.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Huguenard, J. R., and Prince, D. A., (1994). J. Neurosci. 14, 5485–5502.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Hui, A., Ellinor, P. T., Krizanova, O., Wang, J.-J., Diebold, R. J., and Schwartz, A., (1991). Neuron, 7, 35–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Inoue, Y., Oike, M., Nakao, K., Kitamura, K., and Kuriyama, H., (1990). J. Physiol. 423, 171–191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Ito, H., Hirata, Y., Hiroe, M., Tsujino, M., Adachi, S., Takamoto, T., Nitta, M., Taniguchi, K., and Marumo, F., (1991). Circ. Res. 69, 209–215.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Ito, H., Hiroe, M., Hirata, Y., Fujisaki, H., Adachi, S., Akimoto, H., Ohta, Y., and Marumo, F., (1994). Circulation, 89, 2198–2203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Janssen, L. J., (1997). Am. J. Physiol. 272, C1757–C1765.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Johansen, J., Taft, W. C., Yang, J., Kleinhaus, A. L., and Delorenzo, R. J., (1985). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 82, 3935–3939.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Jones, M. V., Brooks, P. A., and Harrison, N. L., (1992). J. Physiol. 449, 279–293.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Jones, S. W., (1998). J. Bioenerg. Biomembr. 30, 299–318.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Kaneda, M., and Akaike, N., (1989). Brain Res. 497, 187–190.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Kaneda, M., Wakamori, M., Ito, C., and Akaike, N., (1990). J. Neurophysiol. 63, 1046–1051.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Kasai, H., (1992). J. Physiol. 448, 189–209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Kawai, F., Kurahahsi, T., and Kaneko, A., (1999). Nat. Neurosc. 2, 133–138.Google Scholar
  119. Kawai, F., and Miyachi, E., (2001a). J. Neurosci. 21, 1–5.Google Scholar
  120. Kawai, F., and Miyachi, E., (2001b). Neurosci. Res. 39, 327–337.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Keji, J. A., Stoof, J. C., and Kits, K. S., (1992). J. Physiol. 71, 840–855.Google Scholar
  122. Kelly, K. M., Gross, R. A., and Macdonald, R. L., (1990). Neurosci. Lett. 116, 223–238.Google Scholar
  123. Klöckner, U., Lee, J.-H., Cribbs, L. L., Daud, A. S., Hescheler, J., Pereverzev, A., Perez-Reyes, E., and Schneider, T., (1999). Eur. J. Neurosci. 11, 4171–4178.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Klugbauer, N., Marais, E., LacinovÁa, L., and Hofmann, F., (1999). Pflugers Arch. 437, 710–715.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Kobrinsky, E. M., Pearson, H. A., and Dolphin, A. C., (1994). Neuroscience, 58, 539–552.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Kostyuk, P. G., Molokanova, E. A., Pronchuk, N. F., Savchenko, A. N., and Verhratsky, A. N., (1992). Neuroscience, 51, 755–758.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Kostyuk, P. G., and Shirokov, R. E., (1989). J. Physiol. 409, 343–355.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Kozlov, A. S., McKenna, F., Lee, J.-H., Cribbs, L. L., Perez-Reyes, E., Feltz, A., and Lambert, R. C., (1999). Eur. J. Neurosci. 11, 4149–4158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Krnjevic, K., and Puil, E., (1988). Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 66, 1570–1575.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Kuga, T., Sadoshima, J., Tomoike, H., Kanaide, H., Akaike, N., and Nakamura, M., (1990). Circ. Res. 67, 469–480.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Kumar, P. P., Stotz, S. C., Paramashivappa, S. R., Beedle, A. M., Zamponi, G. W., and Rao, A. S., (2002). Mol. Pharmacol. 61, 649–658.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. LacinovÁa, L., Klugbauer, N., and Hofmann, F., (2000). Neuropharmacology, 39, 1254–1266.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Lai, Y., Seagar, M. J., Takahashi, M., and Catterall, W. A., (1990). J. Biol. Chem. 265, 20839–20848.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Lam, E., Skarsgard, P., and Laher, I., (1998). Eur. J. Pharmacol. 358, 165–168.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Lambert, J. J., Belelli, D., Hill-Venning, C., and Peters, J. A., (1995). Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 16, 295–303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Lee, J.-H., Daud, A. N., Cribbs, L. L., Lacerda, A. E., Pereverzev, A., Klöckner, U., Schneider, T., and Perez-Reyes, E., (1999a). J. Neurosci. 19, 1912–1921.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Lee, J.-H., Gomora, J. C., Cribbs, L. L., and Perez-Reyes, E., (1999b). Biophys. J. 77, 3034–3042.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Lee K. S., and Tsien, R. W., (1983). Nature, 302, 790–794.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Lenglet, S., Louiset, E., Delarue, C., Vandry, H., and Contesse, V., (2002). Endocrinology, 143, 1748–1760.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Lepretre, N., Arnaudeau, S., Mironneau, J., Rakotoarisoa, L., Mironneau, C., and Galiano, A., (1994). J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 271, 1209–1215.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Leresche, N., Parri, H. R., Erdemli, G., Guyon, A., Turner, J. P., Williams, S. R., Asprodini, E., and Crunelli, V., (1998). J. Neurosci. 18, 4842–4853.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Lesouhaitier, O., Chiappe, A., and Rossier, M. F., (2001). Endocrinology, 142, 4320–4330.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Leung, A. T., Imagawa, T., and Campbell, K. P., (1987). J. Biol. Chem. 262, 7943–7946.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Leuranguer, V., Mangoni, M. E., Nargeot, J., and Richard, S., (2001). J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 37, 649–661.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Liu, J. H., Bijlenga, P., Occhiodoro, T., Fischer-Lougheed, J., Bader, C. R., and Bernheim, L., (1999). Br. J. Pharmacol. 126, 245–250PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Liu, H., De Waard, M., Scott, V. E., Gurnett, C. A., Lennon, V. A., and Campbell, K. P., (1996). J. Biol. Chem. 271, 13804–13810.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. LlinÁas, R., and Jahnsen, H., (1982). Nature, 297, 406–408.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. LlinÁas, R., Sugimori, M., Lin, J.-W., and Cherksey, B., (1989). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86, 1689–1693.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. LlinÁas, R., and Yarom, Y., (1981). J. Physiol. 315, 549–567.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Lu, H. K., Fern, R. J., Luthin, D., Linden, J., Liu, L. P., Cohen, C. J., and Barrett, P. Q., (1996). Am. J. Physiol. 271, C1340–C1349.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Lu, H.-K., Fern, R. J., Nee, J. J., and Barrett, P. Q., (1994). Am. J. Physiol. 267, F183–F189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Marchetti, C., Carbone, E., and Lux, H. D., (1986). Eur. Biophys. J. 23, 51–58.Google Scholar
  153. Marchetti, C., and Robello, M., (1989). Biophys. J. 56, 1267–1272.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Margeta-Mitrovic, M., Grigg, J. J., Koyano, K., Nakajima, Y., and Nakajima, S., (1997). J. Neurophysiol. 78, 1341–1352.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Martin, R. L., Lee, J.-H., Cribbs, L. L., Perez-Reyes, E., and Hanck, D. A., (2000). J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 295, 302–308.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Martinez, M. L., Heredia, M. P., and Delgado, C., (1999). J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 31, 1617–1625.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Martin-Moutot, N., Leveque, C., Sato, K., Kato, R., Takahashi, M., and Seagar, M., (1995). FEBS Lett. 366, 21–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Massie, B. M., (1998). Am. J. Hypertens. 11, 95S-102S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Matthews, E. A., and Dickerson, A. H., (2001). Eur. J Pharmacol. 415, 141–149.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. McCarthy, R. T., Isales, C., and Rasmussen, H., (1993). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90, 3260–3264.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. McDonough, S. I., and Bean, B. P., (1998). J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 54, 1080–1087.Google Scholar
  162. McDowell, T. S., Pancrazio, J. J., Barrett, P. Q., and Lynch, C., (1999). Anesth. Analg. 88, 168–173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. McDowell, T. S., Pancrazio, J. J., and Lynch, C., (1996). Anesthesiology, 85, 1167–1175.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. McEnery, M. W., (1993). Molecular and Cellular Biology of Pharmacological Targets, Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  165. McEnery, M. W., Snowman, A. M., Sharp, A. H., Adams, M. E., and Snyder, S. H., (1991). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88, 11095–11099.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. McRory, J. E., Santi, C. M., Hamming, K. S. C., Mezeyova, J., Sutton, K. G., Baillie, D. L., Stea, A., and Snutch, T. P., (2001). J. Biol. Chem. 276, 3999–4011.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Mehrke, G., Zong, X. G., Flockerzi, V., and Hofmann, F., (1994). J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 271, 1483–1488.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Mikami, A., Imoto, K., Tanabe, T., Niidome, T., Mori, Y., Takeshima, H., Narumiya, S., and Numa, S., (1989). Nature, 340, 230–233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Mintz, I. M., Venema, V. J., Adams, M. E., and Bean, B. P., (1991). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88, 6628–6631.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Mishra, S. K., and Hermsmeyer, K., (1994). Circ. Res. 75, 144–148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Mitra, R., and Morad, M., (1986). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 83, 5340–5344.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Mittman, S., Guo, J., and Angew, W. S., (1999a). Neurosci. Lett. 274, 143–146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Mittman, S., Guo, J., Emerick, M. C., and Agnew, W. S., (1999b). Neurosci. Lett. 269, 121–124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Monteil, A., Chemin, J., Bourinet, E., Mennessier, G., Lory, P., and Nargeot, J., (2000a). J. Biol. Chem. 275, 6090–6100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Monteil, A., Chemin, J., Leurangeur, V., Altier, C., Mennessier, G., Bourinet, E., Lory, P., and Nargeot, J., (2000b). J. Biol. Chem. 275, 16530–16535.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Mori, Y., Friedrich, T., Kim, M.-S., Mikami, A., Nakai, J., Ruth, P., Bosse, E., Hofmann, F., Flockerzi, V., Furuichi, T., Mikoshiba, K., Imoto, K., Tanabe, T., and Numa, S., (1991). Nature, 350, 398–402.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Morikawa, H., Fukuda, K., Mima, H., Shoda, T., Kato, S., and Mori, K., (1998). Pflugers Arch. 436, 127–132.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Muramatsu, M., Tyler, R. C., Rodman, D. M., and McMurtry, I. F., (1997). Am. J. Physiol. 272, H2616–H2621.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Nakashima, Y. M., Pereverzev, A., Schneider, T., Covey, D. F., and Lingle, C. J., (1999). Neuropharmacology, 38, 843–855.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Nakashima, Y. M., Todorovic, S. M., Perevzev, A., Hescheler, J., Schneider, T., and Lingle, C. J., (1998). Neuropharmacology, 37, 957–972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Nakazawa, K., Inoue, K., Ohara-Imaizumi, M., Fujimori, K., and Takanaka, A., (1991). Brain Res. 553, 44–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Narahashi, T., Tsunoo, A., and Yoshii, M., (1987). J. Physiol. 383, 231–249.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Nilius, B., Hess, P., Lansman, J. B., and Tsien, R. W., (1985). Nature, 316, 443–446.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Nowycky, M. C., Fox, A. P., and Tsien, R. W., (1985). Nature, 316, 440–443.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Nuss, H. B., and Houser, S. R., (1993). Circ. Res. 73, 777–782.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Nussinovitch, I., and Kleinhaus, D. L., (1992). Brain Res. 574, 49–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Ogata, N., and Narahashi, T., (1990). J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 252, 1142–1149.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Olcese, R., Usai, C., Maestrone, E., and Nobile, M., (1994). Anesth. Analg. 78, 955–960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Oommen, K. J., and Mathews, S., (1999). Clin. Neuropharmacol. 22, 192–200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Opril, S., (1998). Am. J. Hypertens. 11, 88S-94S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Osterrieder, W., and Holck, M., (1989). J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 13, 754–759.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Pacaud, P., Loirand, G., Mironneau, C., and Mironneau, J., (1987). Pflugers Arch. 410, 557–559.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Palmer, L. G., (1984). J. Memb. Biol. 80, 153–165.Google Scholar
  194. Pemberton, K. E., Hill-Eubanks, L. J., and Penelope Jones, S. V., (2000). Pflugers Arch. 440, 452–461.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Perchenet, L., Benardeau, A., and Ertel, E. A., (2000). Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. 361, 590–599.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Perez-Reyes, E., (1998). J. Bioenerg. Biomembr. 30, 313–318.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Perez-Reyes, E., Cribbs, L. L., Daud, A., Lacerda, A. E., Barclay, J., Williamson, M. P., Fox, M., Rees, M., and Lee, J.-H., (1998). Nature, 391, 896–900.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Pfeiffer-Linn, C., and Lasater, E. M., (1993). J. Gen. Physiol. 102, 277–294.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Pfeiffer-Linn, C. L., and Lasater, E. M., (1998). J. Neurophysiol. 80, 377–388.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Pfreiger, F. W., Veselovsky, N. S., Gottmann, K., and Lux, H. D., (1992). J. Neurosci. 12, 4347–4357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Pinder, R. M., Broden, R. N., Sawyer, P. R., Speight, T. M., Spencer, R., and Avery, G. S., (1976). Drugs, 12, 1–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Po, A. L. W., and Zhang, W., (1998). Lancet, 351, 1829–1830.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Publicover, S. J., Preston, M. R., and El Haj, A. J., (1995). J. Physiol. 489, 649–661.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Randall, A. D., and Tsien, R. W., (1997). Neuropharmacology, 36, 879–893.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Reuveny, E., Twombly, D. A., and Narahashi, T., (1993). J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 264, 22–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Ritchie, K. K., (1993). Endorinology, 132, 1621–1629.Google Scholar
  207. Romanin, C., Seydel, K., Glossmann, H., and Schindler, H., (1992). Pflugers Arch. 420, 410–412.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Rossier, M. F., Aptel, H. B., Python, C. P., Burnay, M. M., Vallotton, M. B., and Caponi, A. M., (1995). J. Biol. Chem. 270, 15137–15142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Rossier, M. F., Burnay, M. M., Maturana, A., Capponi, A. M., (1998). Endocr. Res. 24, 443–447.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Rossier, M. F., Burnay, M. M., Vallotton, M. B., and Capponi, A. M., (1996). Endocrinology, 137, 4817–4826.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Ryu, P. D., and Randic, M., (1990). J. Neurophysiol. 63, 273–285.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Sandmann, S., Bohle, R. M., Dreyer, T., and Unger, T., (2000). Virchows Arch. 436, 147–157.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Sandmann, S., Min, J. Y., Meisser, A., and Unger, T., (1999). Cardiovasc. Res. 44, 67–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Sandmann, S., Spitznagel, H., Chung, O., Xia, Q. G., Illner, S., Janichen, G., Rossius, B., Daemen, M. J., and Unger, T., (1998). Cardiovasc. Res. 39, 339–350.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Santi, C. M., Cayabyab, F. S., Sutton, K. G., McRory, J. E., Mezeyova, J., Hamming, K. S., Parker, D., Stea, A., and Snutch, T. P., (2002). J. Neurosci. 22, 396–403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Sarsero, D., Fujiwara, T., Molenaar, P., and Angus, J. A., (1998). Br. J. Pharmacol. 125, 109–119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Satoh, R., Nakabayashi, Y., and Kano, M., (1991). Neurosci. Lett. 122, 233–236.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Sayer, R. J., Brown, A. M., Schwindt, P. C., and Crill, W. E., (1993). J. Neurophysiol. 69, 1596–1606.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Schellenberg, G. D., Anderson, L., and Swanson, P. D., (1983). Mol. Pharmacol. 24, 251–258.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Schmitt, R., Clozel, J.-P., Iberg, N., and Buhler, F., (1995). Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 15, 1161–1165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Schneider, T., and Hofmann, F., (1988). Eur. J. Biochem. 174, 369–375.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Schrier, A. D., Wang, H., Talley, E. M., Perez-Reyes, E., and Barrett, P. Q., (2001). Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 280, C265–C272.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Schroeder, J. E., Fischbach, P. S., and McCleskey, E. W., (1990). J. Neurosci. 10, 947–951.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Scott, R. H., and Dolphin, A. C., (1990). Br. J. Pharmacol. 99, 629–630.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Scott, R. H., Sweeney, M. I., Kobrinsky, E. M., Pearson, H. A., Timms, G. H., Pullar, I. A., Wedley, S., and Dolphin, A. C., (1992). Br. J. Pharmacol. 106, 199–207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Scott, R. H., Wootton, J. F., and Dolphin, A. C., (1990). Neuroscience, 38, 285–294.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Seeman, P., Lee, T., Chau-Wong, M., and Wong, K., (1976). Nature, 261, 717–719.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. Seino, S., Chen, L., Seino, M., Blondell, O., Takeda, J., Johnson, J. H., and Bell, G. I., (1992). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89, 584–588.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Sen, L., and Smith, T. W., (1994). Circ. Res. 75, 149–155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Sharp, A. H., Imagawa, T., Leung, A. T., and Campbell, K. P., (1987). J. Biol. Chem. 262, 12309–12315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Sidach, S. S., and Mintz, I. M., (2002). J. Neurosci. 15, 2023–2034.Google Scholar
  232. Sieber, M., Nastainczyk, W., Zubor, V., Wernet, W., and Hofmann, F., (1987). Eur. J. Biochem. 167, 117–122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Striessnig, J., Knaus, H. G., Grabner, M., Moosburger, K., Seitz, W., Lietz, H., and Glossmann, H., (1987). FEBS Lett. 212, 247–253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Sui, G. P., Wu, C., and Fry, C. H., (2001). J. Urol. 165, 621–626.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. Sun, Q. Q., and Dale, N., (1998). J. Neurosci. 19, 890–899.Google Scholar
  236. Suzuki, S., Kawakami, K., Nishimura, S., Watanebe, Y., Yagi, K., Seino, M., and Miyamoto, K., (1992). Epilepsy Res. 12, 21–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. Suzuki, S., and Rogawski, M. A., (1989). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86, 7228–7232.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. Taft, W. C., and DeLorenzo, R. J., (1984). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 81, 3118–3122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Takahashi, K., and Akaike, N., (1991). J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 256, 169–175.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. Takahashi, H., Tateishi, N., Kaneda, M., and Akaike, N., (1989). Neurosci. Lett. 103, 29–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. Takahashi, K., Wakamori, M., and Akaike, N., (1989). Neurosci. Lett. 104, 229–234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. Takenoshita, M., and Steinbach, J. Y., (1991). J. Neurosci. 11, 1404–1412.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Tanabe, T., Takeshima, H., Mikami, A., Flockerzi, V., Takahashi, H., (1987). Nature, 328, 313–318.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. Tanaka, H., and Shigenobu, K., (2002). Cardiovasc. Drug Rev. 20, 81–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. Tang, C. M., Presser, F., and Morad, M., (1988). Science, 240, 213–215.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. Tarasenko, A. N., Kostyuk, P. G., Eremin, A. V., and Isaev, D. S., (1997). J. Physiol. 499, 77–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. Terrar, D. A., and Victory, J. G., (1988a). Br. J. Pharmacol. 94, 500–508.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. Terrar, D. A., and Victory, J. G., (1988b). Anesthesiology, 69, 742–749.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. Thomson, I., Fraser, R., and Kenyon, C. J., (1995). J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 53, 75–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. Thompson, S. M., and Wong, R. S., (1991). J. Physiol. 439, 671–689.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. Todorovic, S. M., Jevtovic-Todorovic, V., Mennerick, S., Perez-Reyes, E., and Zorumski, C. F., (2001). Mol. Pharm. 60, 603–610.Google Scholar
  252. Todorovic, S. M., and Lingle, C. J., (1998). J. Neurophysiol. 79, 240–252.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. Todorovic, S. M., Perez-Reyes, E., and Lingle, C. J., (2000). Mol. Pharm. 58, 98–108.Google Scholar
  254. Todorovic, S. M., Prakriya, M., Nakashima, Y. M., Nilsson, K. R., Han, M., Zorumski, C. F., Covey, D. F., and Lingle, C. J., (1998). Mol. Pharmacol. 54, 918–927.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. Triggle, D. J., (1998). AJH. 11, 80S-87S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. Tsakiridou, E., Bertollini, L., de Curtis, M., Avanzini, G., and Pape, H. C., (1995). J. Neurosci. 15, 3110–3117.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. Tseng, G. N., and Boyden, P. A., (1991). Am. J. Physiol. 261, H364–H379.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. Tseng, G.-N., and Boyden, P., (2002). Circ. Res. 65, 1735–1750.Google Scholar
  259. Twombly, D. A., Yoshii, M., and Narahashi, T., (1988). J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 246, 189–195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. Twyman, R. E., Rogers, C. J., and Macdonald, R. L., (1989). Ann. Neurol. 25, 213–220.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. Tytgat, J., Nilius, B., Vereecke, J., and Carmeliet, E., (1988). Pflugers Arch. 411, 704–706.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. Tytgat, J., Vereecke, J., and Carmeliet, E., (1996). Eur. J. Pharmacol. 25, 189–197.Google Scholar
  263. Vacher, E., Richer, C., Fornes, P., Clozel, J. P., and Giudicelli, J. F., (1996). J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 27, 686–694.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. Van den Berg, R. J., Kok, P., and Voskuyl, R. A., (1993). Exp. Brain Res. 93, 279–287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. Viana F., Van den Bosch, L., Missiaen, L., Vandenberghe, W., Droogmans, G., Nilius, B., and Robberecht, W., (1997). Cell Calcium. 22, 299–311.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. Wan, X., DÁesilets, M., Soboloff, J., Morris, C., and Tsang, B. K., (1996). Endocrinology, 137, 2514–2521.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. Wang, Z., Estacion, M., and Mordan, L. J., (1993). Am. J. Physiol. 265, C1239–C1246.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. Watabe, S., Yoshii, M., Ogata, N., Tsunoo, A., and Narahashi, T., (1993). Brain Res. 606, 244–250.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. Williams, M. E., Brust, B. F., Feldman, D. H., Patthi, S., Simerson, S., Maroufi, A., McCue, A. F., Velicelebi, G., Ellis, S. B., and Harpold, M. M., (1992a). Science, 257, 389–395.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. Williams, M. E., Feldman, D. H., McCue, A. F., Brenner, R., Velicelebi, G., Ellis, S. B., and Harpold, M. M., (1992b). Neuron, 8, 71–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. Williams, M. E., Washburn, M. S., Hans, M., Urrutia, A., Brust, B. F., Prodanovich, P., Harpold, M. M., and Stauderman, K. A., (1999). J. Neurochem. 72, 791–799.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. Witcher, D. R., De Waard, M., Sakamoto, J., Franzini-Armstrong, C., Pragnell, M., Kahl, S. D., and Campbell, K. P., (1993). Science, 261, 486–489.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. Wolfe, J. T., Wang, H., Perez-Reyes, E., and Barrett, P. Q., (2002). J. Physiol. 538, 343–355.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. Xu, X. P., and Best, P. M., (1990). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87, 4655–4659.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. Yaari, Y., Hamon, B., and Lux, H. D., (1987). Science, 235, 680–682.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. Yang, J., Johansen, J., Kleinhaus, A. L., DeLorenzo, R. J., and Zorumski, C. F., (1987). Eur. J. Pharmacol. 143, 373–381.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. Yang, J. C., Shen, J., Ng, K. F., and Pang, P., (2000). Brain Res. 870, 199–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. Ye, J. H., and Akaike, N., (1993). Brain Res. 606, 111–117.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. Yokokawa, K., Kohno, M., Murakawa, K., Yasunari, K., and Takeda, T., (1990). J. Hypertens. 8, 843–849.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. Yunker, A. M. R., and McEnery, M. W., (2003). J. Bioenerg. Biomembr. 35, 533–575.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. Zamponi, G. W., Bourinet, E., and Snutch, T. P., (1996). J. Membr. Biol. 151, 77–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. Zhang, Y., Cribbs, L. L., and Satin, J., (2000). Am. J. Physiol. 278, H184–H193.Google Scholar
  283. Zhang, Y., Mori, M., Burgess, D. L., and Noebels, J. L., (2002). J. Neurosci. 22, 6362–6371.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. Zhuang, H., Bhattacharjee, A., Hu, F., Zhang, M., Goswami, T., Wang, L., Wu, S., Berggren, P. O., and Li, M., (2000). Diabetes, 49, 59–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anne Marie R. Yunker
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of General Medical Sciences, E620 School of MedicineCase Western Reserve University School of MedicineCleveland

Personalised recommendations