Impact of Chronic Kidney Disease Upon Survival Among Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Recipients
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Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been linked to serious arrhythmias. We studied the impact of CKD upon implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) recipients.
Methods and Results: Baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated from variables at the time of ICD implantation in 95 patients. Patients with eGFR below 60 ml/min and those with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) were considered to have significant CKD. Among 95 patients who underwent ICD implantation for VT/VF, the mean age was 66.5±12.2 years, 27 (29.0%) were women and 20 (21.5%) were African American. The CKD groups (eGFR < 60 ml/min and ESRD) and control group (eGFR≥60 ml/min) were similar with respect to background histories and medications. A significant difference in all-cause mortality in those with eGFR≥60 ml/min, 3 patients (8.6%), compared to either those with eGFR < 60 ml/min, 28 (60.9%), or ESRD 7 patients (58.3%), p < 0.0001, was noted. Proportionately more patients died from arrhythmic deaths in those with eGFR < 60 ml/min, 8 patients (17.39%) and ESRD 3 patients (25%), than those with eGFR ≥60 ml/min, no patient. P ≤ 0.0001. There was progressive increase in DFT's with worsening renal failure. The Cox proportional hazards model for time until death, found independent predictors to be: age, OR = 1.04 (per year), 95% CI 1.00–1.08, p = 0.04; CKD group, OR 2.59, 95% CI 1.27–5.30, p = 0.009; and use of beta-blockers, OR 0.25, 95% CI 0.10–0.61, p = 0.002.
Conclusions: Significant CKD was related to overall poor survival, arrhythmic death and high DFTs.
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