Journal of Family and Economic Issues

, Volume 25, Issue 1, pp 7–23 | Cite as

The Effects of Work and Community Resources and Demands on Family Integration

  • Patricia Voydanoff


This paper uses interviews with 1,156 married dual-earner parents of children aged 10–17 from the 1992–1994 National Survey of Families and Households to examine relationships between work and community resources and demands and two aspects of family integration: activities with adolescents and family cohesion. The results indicate that mothers' shorter paid work hours and fathers' lower participation in community-professional organizations and moderate and high levels of informal helping are positively related to activities with adolescents, whereas moderate and high levels of participation in organized youth activities are positively related to family integration. Community-based subjective resources are positively related to family integration, whereas work-based subjective demands are negatively related to family cohesion. The findings generally are similar for mothers and fathers.

community participation economic strain family integration paid work hours resources demands 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Almeida, D. M., Maggs, J. L., & Galombos, N. L. (1993). Wives' employment hours and spousal participation in family work. Journal of Family Psychology, 7, 233-244.Google Scholar
  2. Barber, B. K., & Buehler, C. (1996). Family cohesion and enmeshment. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 58, 433-441.Google Scholar
  3. Barnett, R. C., Brennan, R. T., Raudenbush, S. W., Pleck, J. H., & Marshall, N. L. (1995). Change in job and marital experiences and change in psychological distress. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 839-850.Google Scholar
  4. Barnett, R. C., & Hyde, J. S. (2001). Women, men, work, and family: An expansionist theory. American Psychologist, 56, 781-796.Google Scholar
  5. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1989). Ecological systems theory. Annals of Child Development, 6, 187-249.Google Scholar
  6. Bryant, W. K., & Zick, C. D. (1996). An examination of parent-child shared time. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 58, 227-237.Google Scholar
  7. Chen, Q., & Luo, Y. (2000, August). What matters more, jobs or children? A study of time use and experience of happiness among dual-earner couples. Paper presented at the annual meetings of the American Sociological Association, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  8. Clark, S. C. (2001). Work cultures and work/family balance. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 58, 348-365.Google Scholar
  9. Crouter, A. C., Jenkins-Tucker, C., Head, M. R., & McHale, S. M. (2002, March). Family time and adolescent psycho-social well-being. Paper presented at the conference, Time Pressure, Work-family Interface and Parent-child Relationships, Kitchener-Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.Google Scholar
  10. Demerouti, E., Bakker, A. B., Nachreiner, F., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2001). The job demands-resources model of burnout. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 499-512.Google Scholar
  11. Downey, D. B. (1995). When bigger is not better. American Sociological Review, 60, 746-761.Google Scholar
  12. Farrell, M. P., & Barnes, G. M. (1993). Family systems and social support: A test of the effects of cohesion and adaptability on the functioning of parents and adolescents. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 55, 119-132.Google Scholar
  13. Fredriksen-Goldsen, K. I., & Scharlach, A. E. (2001). Families and work. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Gronau, R. (1977). Leisure, home production, and work: The theory of the allocation of time revisited. Journal of Political Economy, 85, 1099-1123.Google Scholar
  15. Hochschild. A. R. (1997). The time bind. New York: Henry Holt and Company.Google Scholar
  16. Ihinger-Tallman, M., & Pasley, K. (1987). Remarriage. Newbury Park: Sage.Google Scholar
  17. Kagan, C., & Lewis, S. (1998). Editorial. Community, Work & Family, 1, 5-9.Google Scholar
  18. Kelly, J. R., & Kelly, J. R. (1994). Multiple dimensions of meaning in the domains of work, family, and leisure. Journal of Leisure Research, 26, 250-274.Google Scholar
  19. Kelly, R. F., & Voydanoff, P. (1985). Work/family role strain among employed parents. Family Relations, 34, 367-374.Google Scholar
  20. McKeown, R. G., Garrison, C. A., Jackson, K. L., Cuffe, S. P., Addy, C. L., et al. (1997). Family structure and cohesion, and depressive symptoms in adolescents. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 7, 267-281.Google Scholar
  21. Olson, D. H., McCubbin, H. I., & Associates. (1983). Families: What makes them work. Beverly Hills: Sage.Google Scholar
  22. Piotrkowski, C. S. (1979). Work and the family system. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  23. Rayman, P. M., & Bookman, A. (1999). Creating a research and public policy agenda for work, family, and community. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, 562, 191-211.Google Scholar
  24. Rettig, K. D., Leichtentritt, R. D., & Danes, S. M. (1999). The effects of resources, decision making, and decision implementing on perceived family well-being in adjusting to an economic stressor. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 20, 5-34.Google Scholar
  25. Robinson, J. P., & Godbey, G. (1997). Time for life. University Park: Pennsylvania State University.Google Scholar
  26. Schor, J. (1992). The overworked American. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  27. Sweet, J. A., & Bumpass, L. L. (1996). The National Survey of Families and Households—Waves 1 and 2: Data description and documentation. University of Wisconsin–Madison, Center for Demography and Ecology website: http://www.ssc.wisc/nsfh/home.htmGoogle Scholar
  28. Stevens, D. P., Kiger, G., & Riley, P. J. (2002). Coming unglued? Workplace characteristics, work satisfaction, and family cohesion. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 30, 289-302.Google Scholar
  29. Tenbrunsel, A. E., Brett, J. M., Maoz, E., Stroh, L. K., & Reilly, A. H. (1995). Dynamic and static work-family relationships. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 63, 223-246.Google Scholar
  30. Voydanoff, P. (2001). Incorporating community into work and family research. Human Relations, 54, 1609-1637.Google Scholar
  31. Voydanoff, P., Donnelly, B. W., & Fine, M. A. (1988). Economic distress, social integration, and family satisfaction. Journal of Family Issues, 9, 545-564.Google Scholar
  32. Wilcox, W. B. (2001). Bowling together: Civic engagement and paternal involvement. Paper presented at the annual meetings of the American Sociological Association, August, Anaheim, CA.Google Scholar
  33. Yabiku, S. T., Axinn, W. G., & Thornton, A. (1999). Family integration and children's self-esteem. American Journal of Sociology, 104, 1494-1524.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Human Sciences Press, Inc. 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Patricia Voydanoff
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Leadership in CommunityUniversity of DaytonDayton

Personalised recommendations