Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 34, Issue 2, pp 223–228

Adaptive Behavior in Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified: Microanalysis of Scores on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales

  • Rhea Paul
  • Stephanie Miles
  • Domenic Cicchetti
  • Sara Sparrow
  • Ami Klin
  • Fred Volkmar
  • Megan Coflin
  • Shelley Booker
Article

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to provide a microanalysis of differences in adaptive functioning seen between well-matched groups of school-aged children with autism and those diagnosed as having Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified, all of whom functioned in the mild to moderate range of intellectual impairment. Findings indicate that the major area of difference between children with autism and those with Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified, was expressive communication; specifically, the use of elaborations in syntax and morphology and in pragmatic use of language to convey and to seek information in discourse. Linear discriminant function analysis revealed that scores on just three of these expressive communication item sets correctly identified subjects in the two diagnostic categories with 80% overall accuracy. Implications of these findings for both diagnosis and intervention with children with Autism Spectrum Disorders will be discussed.

Autism Pervasive Developmental Disorders adaptive behavior communication expressive language socialization 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Reference

  1. American Psychiatric Association (1987). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Diseases-IIIR. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Diseases. (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  3. Carter, A., Volkmar, F., Sparrow, S., Wang, J., Lord, C., Dawson, G., Fombonne, E., Loveland, K., Mesibov, G., & Schopler, E. (1998). The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales: Supplementary norms for individuals with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 28, 287-302.Google Scholar
  4. Cicchetti, D., Volkmar, F., Klin, A., & Schowalter, D. (1995). Diagnosing autism using ICD-10 criteria: A comparison of neural networks and standard multivariate procedures. Child Neuropsychology, 1, 26-37.Google Scholar
  5. DeMyer, M., Hingtgen, J., & Jackson, R. (1981). Infantile autism reviewed: A decade of research. Schiophrenia Bulletin, 7, 388-451.Google Scholar
  6. Fletcher, J., Rice, W., & Ray, R. (1978). Linear discriminant function analysis in neurophychological research: Some uses and abuses. Cortex, 14, 564-577.Google Scholar
  7. Gillham, J., Carter, A., Volkmar, F., & Sparrow, S. (2000). Toward a developmental operational definition of autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30, 269-278.Google Scholar
  8. Kanner, L. (1943). Autistic disorders of affective contact. Nervous Child, 2, 217-250.Google Scholar
  9. Klin, A., Lang, J., Cicchetti, D. V., & Volkmar, F. R. (2000). Brief Report: Interrater reliability of clinical diagnosis and DSM-IV criteria for autistic disorder: Results of the DSM-IV autism field trial. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30, 163-167.Google Scholar
  10. Klin, A., Volkmar, F., & Sparrow, S. (1992). Autistic social dysfunction: Some limitations of the theory of mind hypothesis. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 33, 861-876.Google Scholar
  11. Liss, M., Harel, B., Fein, D., Allen, D., Dunn, M., Feinstein, C., Morris, R., Waterhouse, L., & Rapin, I. (2001). Predictors and correlates of adaptive functioning in children with developmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31, 219-230.Google Scholar
  12. Lord, C., Risi, S., Lambrecht, L., Cook, E. H., Jr., Leventhal, B. L., DiLavore, P. C., Pickles, A., & Rutter, M. (2000). The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic: A standard measure of social and communication deficits associated with the spectrum of autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30, 205-223.Google Scholar
  13. Lord, C., Rutter, M., & LeCouteur, A. (1994). Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised: A revised version of a diagnostic interview for caregivers of individuals with possible pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 24, 659-685.Google Scholar
  14. Loveland, K., & Kelley, M. (1991). Development of adaptive behavior in preschoolers with autism or Down syndrome. American Journal of Mental Retardation, 96, 13-20.Google Scholar
  15. Prior, M., & Ozonoff, S. (1998). Psychological factors in autism. In F. Volkmar (Ed.), Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders (pp. 64-108). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Rodrigue, J., Morgan, S., & Gefken, G. (1991). A comparisative evaluation of adaptaive behavior in children and adolescents with autism Down syndrome and normal development. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 21, 187-198.Google Scholar
  17. Schatz, J., & Hamdan-Allen, G. (1995). Effects of age and IQ on adaptive behavior domains for children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 25, 51-60.Google Scholar
  18. Sparrow, S., Balla, D., & Cicchetti, D. V. (1984). The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (Survey Form). Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.Google Scholar
  19. Tager-Flusberg, H. (1995). Dissociations in form and function in the acquisition of language in autistic children. In H. Tager-Flusberg (Ed.), Constraints on language acquisition: Studies of atypical children (pp. 175-194). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  20. Volkmar, F., & Lord, C. (1998). Diagnosis and definition of autism and other pervasive developmental disorders. In F. Volkmar (Ed.), Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders (pp. 1-31). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Volkmar, F., Klin, A., Siegel, B., Szatmari, P., Lord, C., Campbell, M., Freeman, B., Cicchetti, D. V., Rutter, M., Kline, W., Buitelar, J., Hattab, Y., Fombonne, E., Fuentes, J., Werry, J., Stone, W., Kerbeshian, J., Hoshino, Y., Bregman, J., Loveland, K., Szymanski, L., & Towbin, K. (1994). Field trial for autistic disorder in DSM-IV. American Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 1361-1367.Google Scholar
  22. Volkmar, F., Sparrow, S., Goudreau, D., Cicchetti, D., Paul, R., & Cohen, D. (1987). Social deficits in autism: An operational approach using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 26, 156-161.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rhea Paul
    • 1
    • 2
  • Stephanie Miles
    • 1
  • Domenic Cicchetti
    • 1
  • Sara Sparrow
    • 1
  • Ami Klin
    • 1
  • Fred Volkmar
    • 1
  • Megan Coflin
    • 3
  • Shelley Booker
    • 3
  1. 1.Yale Child Study CenterNew Haven
  2. 2.Southern Connecticut State UniversityNew Haven
  3. 3.ASHA Mentored Research in Higher Education Visiting FellowNew Haven

Personalised recommendations