Integrated Pest Management Reviews

, Volume 7, Issue 4, pp 223–243 | Cite as

Detection and Monitoring of Larger Grain Borer, Prostephanustruncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae)

  • R.J. Hodges
Article

Abstract

Methods for detecting and for monitoring Prostephanus truncatus(Horn) are crucial components in phyto- sanitary control, research programmes and pest management against this beetle. P. truncatus is unusual in that its populations are distributed widely between natural habitats and stores holding maize grain and dried cassava roots, which necessitates a similarly wide range of sampling methodologies. This review considers successful and unsuccessful approaches to sampling the pest populations in both stores and the natural environment and concludes with a consideration of how monitoring could contribute to integrated pest management for P. truncatus.

crevice traps flight traps grain stores light traps pheromone traps risk warning sampling plans suction traps 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Addo, S., Birkinshaw, L. A. and Hodges, R. J. (2003) Biocharacteristics of Prostephanus truncatus attracted to flight traps baited with aggregation pheromone. In P. F. Credland, D. M. Armitage, C. H. Bell, P. M. Cogan and E. Highley (eds) Advances in Stored Product Protection, pp. 339–345. Proceedings of the 8th International Working Conference on Stored Products Protection, York, UK, 22-26 July 2002. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.Google Scholar
  2. Biliwa, A., Boeye, J., Fischer, H. U. and Helbig, J. (1992) Strategie de la lachers et etudes de suivi de Teretriosoma nigrescens au Togo. In J. M. Boeye, M. Wright and G. A. Laborius (eds) Implementation of and Further Research on Biological Control of the Larger Grain Borer, pp. 138–142. Proceedings of an FAO/GTZ Co-ordination Committee Meeting. Lomé, Togo.Google Scholar
  3. Birkinshaw, L. A., Hodges R. J., Addo, S. and Riwa, W. (2002) Can 'bad' years for damage by Prostephanus truncatus be predicted? Crop Prot. 21 (9), 783–91.Google Scholar
  4. Birkinshaw, L. A., Hodges, R. J. and Addo, S. (2004) Flight behaviour of Prostephanus truncatus and Teretrius nigrescens demonstrated by a cheap and simple pheromone-baited trap designed to segregate catches with time. J. Stored Prod. Res. 40, 227–32.Google Scholar
  5. Boeye, J., Laborius, G. A. and Schulz, F. A. (1992) The response of Teretriosoma nigrescens Lewis (Col., Histeridae) to the pheromone of Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Col., Bostrichidae). Angew. Schaedlingsk Pflanzensch Umweltsch 65, 153–7.Google Scholar
  6. Borgemeister, C., Meikle, W. G., Scholz, D., Adda, C., Degbey, P. and Markham, R. H. (1997a) Seasonal and weather factors influencing the annual flight cycle of Prostephanus truncatus (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and its predator Teretriosoma nigrescens (Coleoptera: Histeridae) in Benin. Bull. Ent. Res. 87, 239–46.Google Scholar
  7. Borgemeister, C., Djossou, F., Adda, C., Schneider H., Djomamou B., Degbey, P., Azoma B., and Markham, R. H. (1997b) Establishment, spread, and impact of Teretriosoma nigrescens (Coloeptera: Histridae), an exoctic predator of the larger grain borer (Coleoptera;Bostrichidae) in Southwestern Benin. Env. Ent. 26, 1405–15.Google Scholar
  8. Borgemeister, C., Adda C., Setamou M., Hell K., Djomamou B., Markham R. H. and Cardwell, K. F. (1998) Timing of harvest in maize: effects on post harvest losses due to insects and fungi in central Benin, with particular reference to Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae). Agr. Ecosyt. Environ. 69, 233–42.Google Scholar
  9. Bosque-Perez, N. A., Markham, R. H. and Fajemisin, J. M. (1991) Occurrence of larger grain borer Prostephanus truncatus in Burkina Faso. FAO Plant Prot. Bull. 39, 182–183.Google Scholar
  10. Compton, J. A. F. (2002) Evaluating physical and economic losses and improving decision-making in small farm maize stored. Ph. D. Thesis, University of London.Google Scholar
  11. Compton, J. A. F., Floyd, S., Acquaye, K. and Boxall, R. (1997) Comparison of three types of pheromone-baited flight traps for the larger grain borer, Prostephanus truncatus (Horn). Ins. Sci. Appl. 17, 205–11.Google Scholar
  12. Cork, A., Hall, D. R., Hodges, R. J. and Pickett, J. A. (1991) Identification of major component of the male produced aggregation pheromone of the larger grain borer, Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae). J. Chem. Ecol. 17 (4), 789–803.Google Scholar
  13. Dendy, J., Dobie, P., Saidi, J. A., Smith, J. and Urono, B. (1989a) Trapping the larger grain borer, Prostephanus truncatus in maize elds using synthetic pheromones. Ent. Exp. Appl. 50, 241–44.Google Scholar
  14. Dendy, J., Dobie, P., Saidi, J. and Sherman, C. (1989b) The design of traps for monitoring the presence of Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) in maize fields. J. Stored Prod. Res. 25, 187–91.Google Scholar
  15. Dendy, J., Dobie, P., Saidi, J. A., Smith, J. and Urono, B. (1991) Trials to assess the eff. ectiveness of new synthetic pheromone mixtures for trapping Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) in maize stores. J. Stored Prod. Res. 27, 69–74.Google Scholar
  16. Dick, K. M. (1988) A review of insect infestation if maize in farm storage in Africa with special reference to the ecology and control of Prostephanus truncatus. Natural Resources Institute, Chatham Maritime, Kent, ME4 TB, UK, 42 pp.Google Scholar
  17. Dick, K. M, Rees, D. P., Lay, K. K. and Ofusu, A. (1989) Occurrence of larger grain borer Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) in Ghana. FAO Plant Prot. Bull. 37 (3), 132.Google Scholar
  18. Dunstan, W. R. and Magazini, I. A. (1981) The larger grain borer on stored products in Tanzania. FAO Plant Prot. Bull. 29, 80–1.Google Scholar
  19. Fadamiro, H. Y. (1995) Flight behaviour and pheromone communication of the larger gain borer, Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae). D. Phil. Thesis, Green College, University of Oxford.Google Scholar
  20. Fadamiro, H. Y. and Wyatt, T. D. (1995) Flight initiation by Prostephanus truncatus in relation to time of day, temperature, relative humidity and starvation. Entomol Exp. Appl. 75, 273–7Google Scholar
  21. Fandohan, P., Langner, B. and Mutulu, P. (1992) Distribution, recherche et cô ntrole du grand capucin du ma Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) au Benin. In J. M. Boeye, M. Wright and G. A. Laborius (eds) Implementation of and Further Research on Biological Control of the Larger Grain Borer, pp. 8–28. Proceedings of an FAO/GTZ Co-ordination Committee Meeting. Lomé, Togo.Google Scholar
  22. Farrell, G. (2000) Dispersal, phenology and predicted abundance of the larger grain borer in different environments. Afr. Crop Sci. J. 8, 337–43.Google Scholar
  23. Farrell, G. and Key, G. E. (1992) Flight behaviour of the larger grain borer Prostephanus truncatus in response to synthetic pheromone. Trop. Sci. 32, 163–70.Google Scholar
  24. Giles, P. H., Hill, M. G., Nang 'ayo, F. L. O., Farrell, G. and Kibata, G. N. (1996) Release and establishment of the predator Teretriosoma nigrescens Lewis for the biological control of Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) in Kenya. Afr. Crop Sci. J. 4, 325–37.Google Scholar
  25. Giles, P., Hill, G., Nang 'ayo, F., Farrell, G., Stabrawa, A. and Wekesa, P. (1995) Entomological and socio-economic investigations for the development of integrated pest management strategies against Prostephanus truncatus. Final Report of the UK/Kenya larger grain borer Project. Chatham: Natural Resources Institute.Google Scholar
  26. Hodges, R. J., Dunstan, W. R., Magazini, I. and Golob, P. (1983a) An outbreak of Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) in East Africa. Prot. Ecol. 5, 1983–94.Google Scholar
  27. Hodges, R. J., Hall, D. R., Golob, P. and Meik, J. (1983b) Responses of Prostephanus truncatus to components of the aggregation pheromone of Rhyzopertha dominica in the laboratory and field. Ent. Exp. Appl. 34, 11–7.Google Scholar
  28. Hodges, R. J., Cork A. and Hall D. R. (1984) Aggregation pheromones for monitoring the greater grain borer (Prostephanus truncatus). In British Crop Protection Conference - Pest and Diseases, pp. 255–60. Farnham: British Crop Protection Council.Google Scholar
  29. Hodges, R. J., Halid, H., Rees, D. P., Meik, J. and Sarjono, J. (1986) Insect traps tested as an aid to pest management in milled rice stores. J. Stored Prod. Res. 21, 215–29.Google Scholar
  30. Hodges, R. J. and Pike, V. (1995) How to use Pheromone Traps to Monitor the Larger Grain Borer (Prostephanus truncatus). Chatham: Natural Resources Institute.Google Scholar
  31. Hodges, R. J., Farrell G. and Golob, P. (1996) Review of the larger grain borer outbreak in East Africa-rate of spread and pest status. In G. Farrell, A. H. Greathead, M. G. Hill and G. N. Kibata (eds) Management of Farm Storage Pests in East and Central Africa, pp. 29–43. Proceedings of the East and Central Africa Storage Pest Management Workshop, Naivasha, Kenya, 14-19 April 1996. Ascot: International Institute of Biological Control.Google Scholar
  32. Hodges R. J. and Dobson C. (1998) Laboratory studies on the behavioural interactions of Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) with conspecifics, synthetic pheromone and the predator Teretriosoma nigrescens (Lewes) (Coleoptera: Histeridae). J. Stored Prod. Res. 34, 297–305.Google Scholar
  33. Hodges, R. J., Hall, D. R., Mbugua, J. N. and Likayho, P. W. (1998) The responses of Prostephanus truncatus (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to pheromone and synthetic maize volatiles as lure in crevice and flight traps. Bull. Ent. Res. 88, 131–9.Google Scholar
  34. Hodges, R. J., Carr, P. and Hussein, A. I. (1999) Limiting the amount of pesticide applied to small bulks of maize in rural stores. In J. Zuxun, L. Quan, L. Yongsheng, T. Xianchang and G. Lianghua (eds) Stored Product Protection, Vol: 1, pp. 956–63. Proceedings of the 7th International Working Conference on Stored-Product Protection, 14-19 October 1998, Beijing, China.Google Scholar
  35. Hodges, R. J., Birkinshaw, L. A., Farman, D. I. and Hall, D. R. (2002) Inter-male variation in aggregation-pheromone release in Prostephanus truncatus. J. Chem. Ecol. 28, 1665–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Hodges R. J., Addo, S. and Birkinshaw, L. A. (2003a) Can observations of climatic variables be used to predict the flight dispersal rates of Prostephanus truncatus? Agric. Forest Entomol. 5, 123–35.Google Scholar
  37. Hodges, R. J., Birkinshaw, L. A. and Addo, S. (2003b) Warning farmers when the risk of infestation by Prostephanus truncatus is high. In P. F. Credland, D. M. Armitage, C. H. Bell, P. M. Cogan and E. Highley (eds) Advances in Stored Product Protection, pp. 110–4. Proceedings of the 8th International Working Conference on Stored Products Protection, York, UK, 22-26 July 2002. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.Google Scholar
  38. Hodges, R. J., Addo, S., Farman D. I. and Hall D. R. (2004) Optimising pheromone lures and trapping methodology for Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae). J. Stored Prod. Res. 40, 439–49.Google Scholar
  39. Key, G. E., Tiger, B. J., Flores-Sanchez, E. and Vasquez-Arista, M. (1994) Response of Prostephanus truncatus and Teretriosoma nigrescens to pheromone baited. ight traps. In E. Highley, E. J. Wright, H. J. Banks and B. R. Champ (eds) Stored Product Protection, Vol. 1, pp. 410–4. Proceedings of the Sixth International Working Conference on Stored Products Protection. Canberra, Australia, 17-23 April, 1994.Google Scholar
  40. Krall, S. (1984) A new threat to farm level maize storage in West Africa: Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coloeptera; Bostrichidae). Trop. Stored Prod. Inf. 50, 26–31.Google Scholar
  41. Leos-Martinez, J., Gonzalez-Alonso, M. Del, S. and Williams, H. J. (1995) Optimization of pheromonal trapping methods for Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae). J. Stored Prod. Res. 31, 103–9.Google Scholar
  42. Markham, R. H., Borgmeister, C. and Meikle, W. (1994) Can biological control resolve the larger grain borer crisis. In E. Highley, E. J. Wright, H. J. Banks and B. R. Champ (eds) Stored Product Protection, Vol. 1, pp. 1087–97. Proceedings of the Sixth International Working Conference on Stored Products Protection. Canberra, Australia, 17-23 April, 1994.Google Scholar
  43. Meikle, W. G., Markham, R. H., Holst, N., Djomamou, B., Schneider, H. and Vowotor, K. A. (1998) Distribution and sampling of Prostephanus truncatus (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in maize stores in Benin. J. Econ. Ent. 91, 1366–74.Google Scholar
  44. Meikle, W. G., Holst, N., Degbey, P. and Oussou, R. (2000) Evaluation of sequential sampling plans for the larger grain borer (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and the maize weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and of visual grain assessment in West Africa. J. Econ. Ent. 93, 1822–31.Google Scholar
  45. Meikle, W. G., Markham, R. H., Nansen, C., Holst, N., Degby, P., Azoma, K. and Korie, S. (2002) Pest management in traditional maize stores in West Africa: a farmer 's perspective. J. Econ. Ent. 95, 1079–88.Google Scholar
  46. Nansen, C., Meikle, W. G. and Korie, S. (2002) Spatial analysis of Prostephanus truncatus (Bostrichidae: Coleoptera) flight activity near maize stores and in different forest types in Southern Benin, West Africa. Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. 95, 66–74.Google Scholar
  47. Nansen, C., Korie, S., Meikle, W. G. and Holst, N. (2001) Sensitivity of Prostephanus truncatus (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) flight activity to environmental variables in Benin, West Africa. Env. Ent. 30, 1135–43.Google Scholar
  48. Nang 'ayo, F. L. O., Hill, M. G., Chandi, E. A., Chiro, C. T., Nzeve, D. N. and Obiero, J. W. (1993) The natural environment as a reservoir for the Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) in Kenya. Afr. Crop Sci. J. 1, 39–47.Google Scholar
  49. Nang 'ayo, F. L. O., Hill, M. G. and Wright, D. J. (2002) Potential hosts of Prostephanus truncatus (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) among native and agro-forestry trees in Kenya. Bull. Ent. Res. 92, 499–506.Google Scholar
  50. Novillo Rameix, P. (1991) Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) en el ambiente de almacenamiento tradicional de maiz en el Valle de el Zamorano Honduras, C. A. Tesis de Ingeniero Agronomo, Escuela Agricola Panamericana.Google Scholar
  51. Obeng-Ofori, D. and Coaker, T. H. (1990) Some factors a. ecting the responses of four stored products beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae & Bostrichidae) to pheromones. Bull. Ent. Res. 80, 433–41.Google Scholar
  52. Pike, V., Akinnibagbe, J. J. A. and Bosque-Peres, N. A. (1992) Nigeria - Larger grain borer (Prostephanus truncatus) out-break in Western Nigeria. FAO Plant Prot. Bull. 40, 170–3.Google Scholar
  53. Quintana, R. R., Wilbur R. A. and Young W. R. (1960) Insectos de grano almacenado que infestation al maiz en el campo. Agric. Tec. Mex. 10, 40–3.Google Scholar
  54. Rees, D. P. (1985) Review of the response of stored products insects to light of various wavelengths, with particular reference to the design and use of light traps for population monitoring. Trop. Sci. 25, 197–213.Google Scholar
  55. Rees, D. P., Rodriguez, R. and Herrera, F. L. (1990a) Observations on the ecology of Teretriosoma nigrescens Lewis (Col. Histeridae) and its prey Prostephanus truncatus (Col.: Bostrichidae). Trop. Sci. 30, 153–65.Google Scholar
  56. Rees, D., Rodriguez, R., Herrera, F. and Ofusu, A. (1990b) Advances in monitoring Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Col.: Bostrichidae) and Teretriosoma nigrescens Lewis (Col.: Histeridae) populations. In F. Fleurat-Lessard and P. Ducom (eds), Proceedings of the 5th International Working Conference on Stored-Products Protection, pp. 1417–23. Bordeaux, France, September 9-14, 1990.Google Scholar
  57. Richter, J. and Biliwa, A. (1990) Evaluation de la repartition du Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Col.: Bostrichidae) par utilisation de pieges a pheromone sur le territoire du Togo. In F. Fleurat-Lessard and P. Ducom (eds) Proceedings of the 5th International Working Conference on Stored-Products Protection. pp, 1525–433. Bordeaux, France September 9-14, 1990.Google Scholar
  58. Richter, J., Biliwa, A., Helbig, J. and Henning-Helbig, S. (1998) First release of Teretriosoma nigrescens Lewis (Col., Histeridae), the predator of Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Col.: Bostrichidae), and follow-up investigations in southern Togo. J. Appl. Ent. 122, 383–7.Google Scholar
  59. Rios Ibarra, R. M., Markham, R. H., Novillo Rameix, P. and Wright, V. (1992) Ecology and biological control of the larger grain borer. In J. M. Boeye, M. Wright and G. A. Laborius (eds) Implementation of and further research on biological control of the larger grain borer, pp. 123–36. Proceedings of an FAO/GTZ Co-ordination Committee Meeting. Lomé, Togo.Google Scholar
  60. Scholz, D., Borgemeister, C., Markham, R. H. and Poehling, H. M. (1997) Flight initiation in Prostephanus truncatus: influence of population density and aggregation. Ent. Exp. Appl. 85, 237–45.Google Scholar
  61. Scholz, D., Borgemeister, C., Markham, R. H. and Poehling, H. M. (1998) Flight initiation and flight activity in Prostephanus truncatus (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae). Bull. Ent. Res. 88, 545–52.Google Scholar
  62. Shires, S. W. and McCathy, S. (1976) A character for sexing live adults of Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae). J. Stored Prod. Res. 16, 147–50.Google Scholar
  63. Smith, J. L., Cork, A., Hall, D. R. and Hodges, R. J. (1996) Investigation of the effect of females and their residues on production of aggregation pheromone by male larger grain borer beetles, Prostephanus truncatus Horn (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae). J. Stored Prod. Res. 32, 171–81.Google Scholar
  64. Tigar, B. J., Key, G. E., Flores-S., M. E. and Vazquez-A., M. (1993) Flight periodicity of Prostephanus truncatus and longevity of attraction to synthetic pheromone. Ent. Exp. Appl. 66, 91–7.Google Scholar
  65. Tigar, B. J., Key, G. E., Flores-S., M. E. and Vasquez-A., M. (1994a) Field and post-maturation infestation of maize by stored products pests in Mexico. J. Stored Prod. Res. 30, 1–8.Google Scholar
  66. Tigar, B. J., Osborne, P. E., Key, G. E., Flores-S., M. E. and Vasquez-A., M. (1994b) Insect pests associated with rural maize stores in Mexico with particular reference to Prostephanus truncatus (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae). J. Stored Prod. Res. 30, 267–81.Google Scholar
  67. Tigar, B. J., Osborne, P. E., Key, G. E., Flores-S., M. E. and Vasquez-A., M. (1994c) Distribution and abundance of Prostephanus truncatus (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and its predator Teretriosoma nigrescens (Coleoptera: Histeridae) in Mexico. Bull. Ent. Res. 84, 55–65.Google Scholar
  68. Tyler, P. S., Walker D. J. and Donalson T. J. (1994) Management of drought relief maize. Technical problems encountered in southern Africa during the 1992/1993 food aid operation. Natural Resources Institute, Chatham, UK.Google Scholar
  69. Verstraeten, C. and Haubruge, E. (1987) Les processus de migration de Prostephanus truncatus Horn (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae) dans un stock de mais egrene. Rijksuniversiteit Gent Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenscvhappen, 52 (2a), 235–9.Google Scholar
  70. Walker, D. J. and Farrell, G. (eds) (2003) Food Storage Manual. World Food Programme, Rome, Italy and Natural Resources Institute, Chatham, Kent, UK.Google Scholar
  71. Wekesa, P. W. (1994) Field and store ecology of the larger grain borer Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) in Kenya. Ph. D. Thesis, University of Leicester (UK).Google Scholar
  72. Wright, M. A. P. (1993) Contributions on the ecology and control of Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) in stored cassava. Ph. D. Thesis, University of Reading (UK).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • R.J. Hodges
    • 1
  1. 1.Natural Resources InstituteUniversity of Greenwich, Chatham MaritimeKentUK

Personalised recommendations