Advertisement

International Journal of Primatology

, Volume 25, Issue 2, pp 383–400 | Cite as

Birth Seasonality in Alouatta caraya in Northern Argentina

  • M. Kowalewski
  • G. E. Zunino
Article

Abstract

Given appropriate ecological and social conditions, natural selection should favor individuals that can concentrate their reproductive events to a particular time of the year that offers high opportunities for infant survivorship. Previous studies on births in Alouatta caraya in Northern Argentina revealed the existence of a peak during the dry season—a period with scarcity of food resources—in mainland gallery forest (G. E. Zunino, Extra 133: 1–10, 1996). The time of conception and the period of independence of the offspring are positively correlated with precipitation, temperature and availability of food. Offspring became independent from their mothers when the availability of resources was high, and conception coincided with the peak of fruit production. Our goal was to examine patterns of birth seasonality in Alouatta caraya in flooded forest on an island in Northern Argentina for comparison with the mainland population. Both sites are at similar latitudes, but differ in forest type. The results indicate that the availability of new and mature leaves is more consistent throughout the year in the flooded forest (p<0.05); however, there was no difference in the availability of fleshy fruits between sites (p>0.05). The pattern of births differed between the gallery forest and the flooded forest (2-way Anova, p<0.001). In the flooded forest births occurred throughout the year, which supports the contentions that howlers do not have a fixed birth season and that the observed variation in the timing of births appears to represent a facultative behavioral response to changes in food availability.

Alouatta caraya howler monkeys birth seasonality reproduction seasonality 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Borries, C., Koenig, A., and Winkler P. (2001). Variation of life history traits and mating patterns in female langur monkeys (Semnopithecus entellus). Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 50(5): 391-402.Google Scholar
  2. Brockett, R. C., Horwich, R. H., and Jones, C. B. (2000). Reproductive seasonality in the Belizean black howling monkey (Alouatta pigra). Neot. Primates 8(4): 136-138.Google Scholar
  3. Brown, A. D., and Zunino, G. E. (1994). Hábitat, distribución y problemas de conservación de los Primates de la Argentina. Vida Silvestre Neotrop. 3(1): 30-40.Google Scholar
  4. Butynski, T. M. (1988). Guenon birth seasons and correlates with rainfall and food. In Gautier-Hion, A., Bourliere, F., Gautier, J. P., and Kingdon, J. (eds.), A Primate Radiation: Evolutionary Biology of the African Guenons, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 284-322.Google Scholar
  5. Caughley, G. (1977). Analysis of Vertebrate Populations, Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  6. Chapman, C. A., and Balcomb, S. R. (1998). Population characteristics of howlers: Ecological conditions or group history. Int. J. Primatol. 19(3): 385-403.Google Scholar
  7. Clarke, M. R. (1983). Infant-killing and infant disappearance following male takeovers in a group of free-ranging howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata) in Costa Rica. Am. J. Primatol. 5(3): 241-247.Google Scholar
  8. Clarke, M. R., and Glander, K. E. (1984). Female reproductive success in a group of free-ranging howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata) in Costa Rica. In Small, M. F. (ed.), Female Primates: Studies by Women Primatologists, Alan R. Liss, New York, pp. 159-173.Google Scholar
  9. Colillas, O., and Coppo, J. (1978). Breeding Alouatta caraya in Centro Argentino de Primates. In Chivers, D. J., and Lane Petter W. (eds.), Recent Advances in Primatology, Academic Press, London, pp. 201-214.Google Scholar
  10. Crockett, C. M., and Rudran, R. (1987a). Red howler monkey birth data. I: Seasonal variation. Am. J. Primatol. 13(4): 347-368.Google Scholar
  11. Crockett, C. M., and Rudran, R. (1987b). Red howler monkey birth data. II: Interannual, habitat, and sex comparisons. Am. J. Primatol. 13(4): 369-384.Google Scholar
  12. Dallmeier, F. (1992). Long-term monitoring of biological diversity in tropical forest areas: Methods for establishment and inventory of permanents plots. In MAB Digest II, UNESCO, París.Google Scholar
  13. De la Torre, S., Campos, F., and de Vries, T. (1995). Home range and birth seasonality of Saguinus nigricollis graelsii in Ecuadorian Amazonia. Am. J. Primatol. 37: 39-56.Google Scholar
  14. Di Bitetti, M. S., and Janson, C. H. (2000). When will the stork arrive? Patterns of birth seasonality in Neotropical primates. Am. J. Primatol. 50: 109-130.Google Scholar
  15. Dittus, W. P. J. (1977). The social regulation of population density and age-sex distribution in the toque monkey. Behaviour 63: 281-322.Google Scholar
  16. Eskuche, U., and Fontana, J. L. (1996). La vegetación de las islas argentinas del Alto Paraná. F. Bot. Geobotan. Corrent. 11: 1-15.Google Scholar
  17. Estrada, A. R. (1982). Survey and census of howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) in the rain forest of “Los Tuxtlas,” Veracruz, Mexico. Am. J. Primatol. 2: 363-372.Google Scholar
  18. Fedigan, L. M., and Rose, L. M. (1995). Interbirth interval variation in three sympatric species of neotropical primates. Am. J. Primatol. 37: 9-24.Google Scholar
  19. Fedigan, L. M., Rose, L. M., and Avila, R. M. (1998). Growth of mantled howler groups in a regenerating Costa Rican dry forest. Int. J. Primatol. 19(3): 405-432.Google Scholar
  20. Franceschi, E. A., and Lewis, J. P. (1979). Notas sobre la vegetación del valle santafesino del río Paraná (República Argentina). Ecosur 6(11): 55-82.Google Scholar
  21. Garber, P. A. (1987). Foraging strategies among living primates. Ann. R. Anthropol. 16: 339-364.Google Scholar
  22. Gevaerts, H. (1992). Bith seasons of Cercopithecus, Cercocebus and Colobus in Zaire. F. Primatol. 59: 105-113.Google Scholar
  23. Glander, K. E. (1980). Reproduction and population growth in free-ranging mantled howling monkeys. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 53: 25-36.Google Scholar
  24. Gonzalez, V. (1998). Análisis florístico-estructural de los árboles de la selva de inundación del río Paraná en el NE de la Argentina. Seminario De Integración, Estudios Superiores De Buenos Aires (inedit).Google Scholar
  25. Gould, L., Sussman, R. W., and Sauther, M. L. (1999). Natural disasters and primate populations: The effects of a 2-year drought on a naturally occurring population of ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) in southwestern Madagascar. Int. J. Primatol. 20(1): 69-84.Google Scholar
  26. Koenig, A., Borries, C., Chalise, M. K., and Winkler, P. (1997). Ecology, nutrition, and timing of reproductive event in an Asian primate, the Hanuman langur (Presbystis entellus). J. Zool. (Lond.) 243: 215-235.Google Scholar
  27. Lancaster, J. B., and Lee, R. B. (1965). The annual reproductive cycle in monkeys and apes. In DeVore, I. (ed.), Primate Behavior: Field Studies of Monkeys and Apes, Holt, Rinehort and Winst, New York, pp. 486-513.Google Scholar
  28. Lee, P. C. (1987). Nutrition, fertility and maternal investment in primates. J. Zool.( Lond.) 213: 409-422.Google Scholar
  29. Lindburg, D. G. (1987). Seasonality of reproduction in primates. In Mitchell, G., and Erwin, J. (eds.), Comparative Primate Biology. 2B: Behavior, Cognition, Motivation, Alan R. Liss, New York, pp. 167-218.Google Scholar
  30. Milton, K. (1980). The Foraging Strategy of Howler Monkeys: A Study in Primate Economics, Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  31. Milton, K. (1982). Dietary quality and demographic regulation in a howler monkey population. In Leigh, E. G., Rand, A. S., and Windsor, D. M. (eds.), The Ecology of a Tropical Forest: Seasonal Rhythms and Long-Term Changes, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DS0, pp. 273-289.Google Scholar
  32. Milton, K. (1998). Physiological ecology of howlers (Alouatta): Energetic and digestive considerations and comparison with the Colobinae. Int. J. Primatol. 19(3): 513-548.Google Scholar
  33. National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Nonhuman Primates. Subcommittee on Conservation of Natural Populations. (1981). Techniques for the Study of Primate Population Ecology, National Academy Press, Washington, DN0.Google Scholar
  34. Neville, M. K. (1972). The population structure of red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus) in Trinidad and Venezuela. Folia Primatol. 17: 56-86.Google Scholar
  35. Placci, L. G. (1995). Estructura y comportamiento fenológico en relación a un gradiente hídrico en bosques del este de formosa, Doctoral Thesis, Universidad Nacional de La Plata (inedit).Google Scholar
  36. Popolizio, E. (1977). Contribución a la geomorfología de Corrientes. Geociencia, VII y VIII, UNNE, Resistencia, Chaco.Google Scholar
  37. Rowell, T. E., and Richards, S. M. (1979). Reproductive strategies of some African monkeys. J. Mammal. 60: 58-69.Google Scholar
  38. Rudran, R. (1973). The reproductive cycles of two subspecies of purple-faced langurs (Presbytis senex) with relation to environmental factors. F. Primatol. 19: 41-60.Google Scholar
  39. Rumiz, D. I. (1990). Alouatta caraya. Population density and demography in northern Argentina. Am. J. Primatol. 21: 279-294.Google Scholar
  40. Rumiz, D. I., Zunino, G. E., Obregozo M. L., and Ruiz, J. C. (1986). Alouatta caraya: Habitat and Resource Utilization in Northern Argentina. In Taub, D. M., and King, F. A. (eds.), Current Perspectives in Primate Social Dynamics, Van Nostrand Rehinold, New York, pp. 175-193.Google Scholar
  41. Siegel, S., and Castellan, N. J. (1988). Nonparametric Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  42. Sokal, R. R., and Rohlf, F. J. (1995). Biometry, W. H. Freeman, New York.Google Scholar
  43. Strier, K. B., Mendes, S. L., and Santos, R. R. (2001). Timing of births in sympatric brown howler monkeys (Alouatta fusca clamitans) and northern muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides hypoxanthus). Am. J. Primatol. 55(2): 87-100.Google Scholar
  44. Takahashi, H. (2002). Female reproductive parameters and fruit availability: Factors determining onset of estrus in Japanese macaques. Am. J. Primatol. 57(3): 141-153.Google Scholar
  45. Thorington, R. W., Ruiz, J. C., and Eisenberg, J. F. (1984). A study of a black howling monkey (Alouatta caraya) population in Northern Argentina. Am. J. Primatol. 6: 357-366.Google Scholar
  46. van Schaik, C. P., and van Noordwijk, M. A. (1985). Interannual variability in fruit abundance and the reproductive seasonality in Sumatran long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). J. Zool. (Lond.) (A) 206: 533-549.Google Scholar
  47. Wright, P. C. (1999). Lemur traits and Madagascar ecology: Coping with an island environment. Yearb. Phys. Anthropol. 42: 1-42.Google Scholar
  48. Zar, J. H. (1984). Biostatiscal Analysis, Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.Google Scholar
  49. Zunino, G. E. (1986). Observaciones sobre el comportamiento territorial del mono aullador negro (Alouatta caraya). Bol. Primatol. Arg. 4(1): 36-52.Google Scholar
  50. Zunino, G. E. (1989). Hábitat, dieta y actividad del mono aullador negro (Alouatta caraya) en el noreste de la Argentina. Bol. Primatol. Latinoame. 1(1): 74-97.Google Scholar
  51. Zunino, G. E. (1996). Reproducción del mono aullador negro Alouatta caraya (Primates, Cebidae) en el noreste de la Argentina. Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales. Extra 133(Nueva Serie): 1-10.Google Scholar
  52. Zunino, G. E., González, V., Kowalewski, M., and Bravo, S. P. (2001). Alouatta caraya. Relations among habitat, density and social organization. Primate Repr. 61: 37-46.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyUniversity of Illinois
  2. 2.Estación Biológica Corrientes - Museo Argentino de Cs. NaturalesBuenos AiresArgentina

Personalised recommendations